Purpose: To evaluate the variables possibly related to actinic keratosis and malignant skin lesions on the eyelid.
Methods: A prospective study of patients with suspected eyelid malignancy was conducted. The participants underwent a 2-mm punch biopsy at two opposite sites of the lesion for diagnosis, and the results were compared with those of the histopathological study of the surgical excised specimen. The patients with an actinic keratosis component were divided into two groups (actinic keratosis-associated malignancy and actinic keratosis alone), which were compared for the following variables: age, disease duration, largest diameter, tumor area, Fitzpatrick classification, sex, tumor site and margin involvement. A cluster analysis was also performed.
Results: We analyzed 174 lesions, of which 50 had an actinic keratosis component. Actinic keratosis was associated with squamous cell carcinoma in 22% of the cases and to basal cell carcinoma in 38%, which shows that both neoplasms may have contiguous actinic keratosis. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference among the variables. In a cluster analysis, four groups were identified with malignant lesions in the medial canthus with the largest mean diameter and area. All margin involvements on the lower eyelid were related to malignancy, which means that all cases with margin involvement had an almost 100% risk of malignancy.
Conclusions: Larger actinic keratosis lesions in the medial canthus and lesions with margin involvement on the lower eyelid have a greater probability of malignant association.
Keywords: Keratosis, actinic/pathology; Biopsy; Eyelid neoplasms; Eyelids/injuries
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new-generation hybrid contact lens for improving visual outcomes and vision-related quality-of-life performance in patients with keratoconus who had intolerance or treatment failure of conventional correction methods such as the use of soft silicone-hydrogel or rigid gas-permeable contact lenses.
Methods: Twenty-eight patients with keratoconus (42 eyes) were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. Airflex (Swisslens) lenses were fitted in the patients’ eyes in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruction. Ophthalmologic examinations, including manifest refraction, best-corrected distance visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ-25) assessment, were performed at baseline and the 6-month visit.
Results: An adequate fit was achieved in 39 eyes (92.9%) of 26 patients. Six eyes of 3 patients were excluded from the study owing to discontinuation of lens wearing. The mean age of the successful wearers was 20.3 ± 4.9 years. The mean best-corrected distance visual acuity was statistically significantly improved from 0.62 ± 0.30 to 0.11 ± 0.06 logMAR with the Airflex hybrid contact lenses (p<0.001). The mean overall composite NEI-VFQ-25 score statistically significantly increased with the Airflex hybrid contact lenses at the 6-month visit as compared with that at baseline (from 77.1 ± 16.3 to 90.9 ± 7.3, p=0.036). Statistically significantly better scores were obtained with the Airflex hybrid contact lenses in all the NEI-VFQ-25 subscale items (all p<0.05). No significant adverse effects were observed.
Conclusions: New-generation hybrid contact lenses can be used as an effective alternative for correction of irregular astigmatism in patients with keratoconus who have intolerance or treatment failure of conventional methods. Significant improvement in vision-related quality-of-life in patients with keratoconus can be achieved with these lenses.
Keywords: Contact lenses; Keratoconus; Refraction, ocular; Visual acuity; Quality of life; Surveys and questionnaires
Purpose: To investigate the effects of epiretinal membrane formation on the clinical outcomes of intravitreal dexamethasone implantation for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion.
Methods: This retrospective interventional case series includes the treatment of naive patients with macular edema secondary to non-ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion who underwent intravitreal dexamethasone implantation. The patients were divided into two groups as follows: Group 1 (n=25), comprised of patients with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion without epiretinal membrane, and Group 2 (n=16), comprised of patients with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion with an epiretinal membrane. Corrected visual acuity, central macular thickness, and central macular volume values were measured before and after treatment. The clinical outcomes of the groups were compared.
Results: Mean age and male-to-female ratio were similar between the two groups (p>0.05, for both). The baseline and final corrected visual acuity values, central macular thickness, and central macular volumes of the groups were similar (p>0.05, for all). All the parameters were significantly improved after intravitreal dexamethasone implantation treatment (p<0.001, for all). The changes in central macular thickness and volume were also similar (p>0.05, for both). The mean number of intravitreal dexamethasone implantations was 2.1 ± 1.0 (range, 1-4) in Group 1 and 3.0 ± 1.2 (range, 1-5) in Group 2 (p=0.043).
Conclusion: Epiretinal membrane formation had no effects on the baseline and final clinical parameters, including corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness and volume. The only parameter affected by the presence of epiretinal membrane formation is the number of intravitreal dexamethasone implantations, a greater number of which is needed for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion with an epiretinal membrane.
Keywords: Retinal vein occlusion/complications; Macular edema/etiology; Tomography, optical coherence; Epiretinal membrane; Dexamethasone; Drug implants; Intravitreal injections
Purpose: This study aimed to examine optical coherence tomography findings in patients with opiate use disorder by comparing them with healthy controls.
Methods: The study included 30 opiate use disorder patients and 30 controls. The participants’ detailed biomicroscopic examinations, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and both eye examinations were evaluated. A total of 120 eyes were evaluated using optical coherence tomography, measuring the central macular thickness, mean macular thickness, mean macular volume and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Moreover, all participants filled in the demographic data form and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale.
Results: Upon examination of the optical coherence tomography findings, central macular thickness, mean macular thickness, and mean macular volume were thinner in both eyes in patients with opiate use disorder (p<0.01 in all measurements in both eyes). Similarly, the total values of the superior quadrant and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were statistically significant in both eyes compared to that in the control group (p=0.007, p=0.002; p=0.049, p=0.007, in the right and left eyes, respectively). Only the left eye was positively correlated with retinal nerve fiber layer superior quadrant measurement and hospitalization (r=0.380, p=0.039).
Conclusion: Our results revealed that the patients’ central macular thickness, mean macular thickness, and mean macular volume values were thinner. Increase in the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness superior quadrant thickness and total value was also observed. Further studies with larger sampling groups that evaluate neuroimaging findings should be conducted.
Keywords: Opiates alkaloids; Opioid-related disorders; Tomography, optical coherence; Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness; Macular volume
Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between subfoveal choroidal thickness and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and the severity of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods: A total of 68 cases, including 15 patients without diabetic retinopathy, 17 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, 16 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 20 healthy patients (control group), were enrolled in this study. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured manually using the enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography scanning program, and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level was measured using a commercial micro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.
Results: The subfoveal choroidal thickness values and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine levels were significantly different between the four groups (p<0.001 and p<0.001). The subfoveal choroidal thickness values were significantly lower in the proliferative diabetic retinopathy group than in the other three groups (no diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and control groups; p<0.001, p=0.045, and p<0.001, respectively). The plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine levels were significantly higher in the proliferative diabetic retinopathy group than in the other three groups (p<0.001, p<0.04, and p<0.001, respectively). In addition, a significant negative correlation was also found between plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and subfoveal choroidal thickness (p<0.001, r=-0.479).
Conclusion: Asymmetrical dimethylarginine is an important marker of endothelial dysfunction and endogenous endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The severity of diabetic retinopathy was related to increased plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and reduced subfoveal choroidal thickness in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic retinopathy.
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Diabetic Retinopathy; Choroid; Fovea Centralis; Nitric Oxide; Arginine; Tomography, Optical Coherence
Purpose: This study measured fecal calprotectin levels in a series of patients with anterior uveitis in order to determine whether anterior uveitis patients with associated spondyloarthritis have higher levels of fecal calprotectin than patients with anterior uveitis of other etiologies. A third group of patients with spondyloarthritis without uveitis was also evaluated to understand the role of acute anterior uveitis in increasing fecal calprotectin.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 28 patients were divided into three groups: (a) Group 1, spondyloarthritis and uveitis (n=9); (b) Group 2, spondyloarthritis without uveitis (n=10); and (c) Group 3, uveitis without spondyloarthritis (n=9). The levels of fecal calprotectin were determined.
Results: Groups 1 and 2 showed higher median fecal calprotectin levels (101.0 and 93.0 µg/g, respectively) compared with Group 3 (9.0 µg/g) (p=0.02). However, no relationship between fecal calprotectin levels and the presence of uveitis with spondyloarthritis could be demonstrated.
Conclusion: Patients with spondyloarthritis with or without acute anterior uveitis have significantly elevated levels of fecal calprotectin. This test may be useful for differentiating spondyloarthrit-associated uveitis from uveitis of other etiologies.
Keywords: Calprotectin; Uveitis; Spondyloarthritis; Inflammatory bowel diseases; Biomarkers
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the fitting process of a scleral lens that allows several parameter adjustments during trials and after the initial period of use. In addition, we verified which adjustments were needed and used the most, their indications, and how often these resources were used, and checked the results.
Methods: Scleral contact lens fittings in a private clinic setting were prospectively analyzed in a sequential, non-randomized, and non-comparative manner. All the patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination and had an indication for scleral lens use (Zenlens, Alden Optical).
Results: Scleral fit was analyzed in 80 eyes of 45 patients. Regarding diagnosis, 72% of the patients had keratoconus; 12%, radial keratotomy; 5%, post-refractive surgery ectasia; 5%, dry eye; and 3%, high myopia. In 66 (82.5%) of the 80 eyes studied, parameters were modified when the lenses were ordered. The reasons that led to the modifications were apical touch or decreased sagittal height, increased sagittal height, cylindrical over-refraction, poor visual acuity, lens flexure, peripheral touch, 360° edge compression, horizontal edge compression, and vertical edge compression.
Conclusion: In this study, the use of Zenlens scleral lenses was shown to be a promising corrective treatment for patients requiring the use of scleral lenses. Although the study suggests a learning curve, as many adjustments were allowed, the lens could be customized according to the patients’ needs. This increased the success rates of fitting and wearing, and consequently, use of the lens became a great option for the visual rehabilitation of patients.
Keywords: Contact lenses; Scleral lenses, fitting; Keratoconus; Keratotomy, radial; Refractive surgical procedures; Rehabilitation; Learning curve
Purpose: One of the most important disadvantages of using Mini Monoka stents in pediatric canalicular laceration repair is premature stent loss. In this study, we aimed to compare clinical outcomes between the use of Mini Monoka and Masterka monocanalicular stents in children and discuss the potential causes of premature stent loss.
Methods: The medical records of 36 patients who underwent surgical repair of canalicular lacerations were retrospectively reviewed. Children aged <18 years who underwent canalicular laceration repair with either Mini Monoka or Masterka and had at least 6 months of follow-up after stent removal were included in the study. The patients’ demographics, mechanism of injury, type of stent used, premature stent loss, and success rate were analyzed. Success was defined as stent removal without subsequent epiphora and premature stent loss.
Results: Twenty-seven children fulfilled our study criteria, and their data were included in the analyses. Mini Monoka was used in 14 patients (51.9%), whereas Masterka was used in 13 patients (48.1%). The preoperative clinical features, including age, sex, and mechanism of injury, were similar between the two groups. The mean age was 8.3 ± 5.5 years in the Mini Monoka group and 7.8 ± 5.9 years in the Masterka group (p=0.61). Three patients in the Mini Monoka group (21.4%) underwent reoperation due to premature stent loss. No premature stent loss was observed in the Masterka group. As a result, the rate of success was 78.6% in the Mini Monoka group, whereas it was 100% in the Masterka group (p=0.22).
Conclusions: Even though the two groups did not show any statistically significant difference in success rate, we did not observe any premature stent loss in the Masterka group. Further studies with larger and randomized series are warranted to elaborate on these findings.
Keywords: Eye injuries; Lacrimal apparatus/injuries; Nasolacrimal duct; Lacerations; Stents; Microsurgery; Intubation/methods; Canalicular laceration; Child; Comparative study
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients with trichiasis treated with a modified interlamellar oral mucosa graft surgery technique using fibrin glue.
Methods: A prospective study was conducted at the Oculoplastic Department of Ouro Verde Hospital Complex. Patients with recurrent trichiasis without entropion who did not respond to conventional therapy, underwent intermarginal lamellar splitting of the eyelid and oral mucous graft insertion with fibrin glue replacing sutures. They were then evaluated at 1-day, 1-week, 1-month, 6-month, and 4-year follow-ups. Graft adherence, symptom resolution, esthetic satisfaction, overall patient satisfaction, and trichiasis recurrence were assessed at 6-month and 4-year follow-ups.
Results: Fifteen patients (a total of 19 eyes) were included, of whom 10 (66.7%) were female and 5 (33.3%) were male. The mean age was 75.4 ± 10.5 years (range, 54-98 years). Acquired trichiasis was the main cause. Of the patients with acquired trichiasis, 12 (86.7%) had chronic blepharitis, 2 (13.3%) had an undetermined cause, and one (6.7%) had trachomatous trichiasis. Most cases involved only one eyelid segment (89.4%) and ≤5 lashes (84.2%; minor trichiasis). No adverse reactions from the fibrin glue were reported and no sutures were required after graft placement. At 6 months, no graft failures occurred, 17 eyes of 13 patients (89.4%) showed good graft adherence, 2 eyes of 2 patients (10.5%) showed partial graft adherence, and 2 eyes of 1 patient (10.5%) had trichiasis recurrence. At 4-year follow-up, no graft failure occurred, 3 patients (3 eyes) were lost to follow-up, and 2 eyes of 2 patients (14.2%) had trichiasis recurrence. The 4-year cumulative success rate was 78.9%.
Conclusions: The modified interlamellar surgery with fibrin glue showed a good long-term success rate. This technique reduces surgical time, facilitates smaller graft insertion, and therefore, should be considered for recalcitrant minor trichiasis without entropion.
Keywords: Trichiasis; Interlamellar surgery; Van Millingen surgery; Fibrin glue; Biological glue; Oral mucosal graft
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of intravitreal aflibercept treatment for macular edema with and without serous retinal detachment due to branch retinal vein occlusion.
Methods: Thirty-seven eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion treated with intravitreal aflibercept injection for macular edema were evaluated retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether they showed serous retinal detachment on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Pro re nata regimen was applied after 1 dose of intravitreal aflibercept injection. After the initial injection, control treatments were administered at months 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12. The best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness were measured.
Results: Fifteen patients had serous retinal detachment, and 22 with macular edema only (non-serous retinal detachment). The central macular thickness was significantly greater in the group with than in the group without serous retinal detachment (811.73 ± 220.68 μm and 667.90 ± 220.68 μm, respectively, p=0.04). The difference between the groups disappeared from the third month. The central macular thickness was similar between the two groups at the last control treatment (407.27 ± 99.08 μm and 376.66 ± 74.71 μm, p=0.66). The best-corrected visual acuity increased significantly in both groups. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of the best-corrected visual acuities at baseline and the final control.
Conclusion: The intravitreal aflibercept treatment was highly effective in improving best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion-induced macular edema independent of serous retinal detachment.
Keywords: Intravitreal injections; Aflibercept; Retinal vein occlusion; Macular edema; Retinal detachment
This case report describes the clinical characteristics and ophthalmic management of a patient who developed corneal perforation due to severe enophthalmos consistent with “silent brain syndrome.” A 27-year-old man with a history of congenital hydrocephalus and ventriculoperitoneal shunt was referred with complaints of “sinking of the eyeballs” and progressively decreasing vision in the left eye. Examination revealed severe bilateral enophthalmos in addition to superonasal corneal perforation with iris prolapse in the left eye. The patient underwent therapeutic keratoplasty the next day. Orbital reconstruction with costochondral graft and shunt revision of the intracranial hypotension were performed the next month to prevent further progression.
Keywords: Enophthalmos; Corneal perforation; Hydrocephalus; Ventriculoperitoneal shunt; Keratoplasty, penetrating; Orbit/ transplantation; Humans; Case report
We report an unusual case of fulminant endogenous Clostridium septicum panophthalmitis. A 74-year-old male patient presented with sudden amaurosis in the right eye, which in a few hours, evolved into an orbital cellulitis, endophthalmitis, anterior segment ischemia, and secondary perforation of the eye. A complete diagnostic study, which included cranial and orbital contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, blood cultures, and complete blood work, were performed. No causal agent was identified. Clostridium septicum infection caused fulminant gaseous panophthalmitis. Despite broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, evisceration of the eyeball was necessary. The extension study showed a colon adenocarcinoma as the origin of the infection. Clostridium septicum panophthalmitis is a rare but aggressive orbital infection. This infection warrants the identification of a neoplastic process in the gastrointestinal tract in many cases not previously described.
Keywords: Panophthalmitis; Adenocarcinoma; Colonic neoplasms; Clostridium septicum
We describe the case of a 15-year-old girl with decreased visual acuity associated with elevated intraocular pressure in both eyes and angle closure on gonioscopy. She also presented attenuation of retinal vessels and optic disc pallor with large excavation in the left eye. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed an anteriorly positioned ciliary body and absence of ciliary sulcus, confirming the plateau iris configuration. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed a bilateral cystoid macular edema. Genetic screening revealed heterozygous variants of the Crumbs homolog 1 (CRB1) gene (c.2843G>A and c.2506C>A). The patient underwent trabeculectomy for intraocular pressure control and topical treatment for macular edema. This case highlights the importance of performing gonioscopy and evaluating intraocular pressure in patients with a shallow anterior chamber despite young age. In addition, it also shows the importance of genetic screening, when available, in elucidating the diagnosis and providing patients and their families’ information on the patient’s prognosis and possible therapeutic options.
Keywords: Glaucoma, angle-closure; Retinitis pigmentosa/diagnosis; Macular edema; Gonioscopy; Genetic testing; Humans; Case report
A 53-year-old man with a 3-day history of periorbital swelling and vision loss in the left eye was found to have septic cavernous sinus thrombosis with bilateral orbital vein involvement causing congestive orbitopathy. He was treated with an emergent canthotomy and cantholysis, intraocular pressure-lowering drops, antibiotics, anticoagulation, and serial examinations. Optical coherence tomography ultimately revealed diffuse ischemic destruction of both layers of the retina, which suggested occlusion of the ophthalmic artery or the short posterior ciliary arteries and central retinal artery without intracavernous internal carotid artery involvement. The patient remained without light perception in the left eye after treatment.
Keywords: Cavernous sinus thrombosis; Orbital diseases; Tomography, optical coherence; Humans; Case reports
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-immunoglobulin G (IgG)-associated optic neuritis has been established as a new entity of immune-mediated optic neuropathy. Patients usually present with recurrent optic neuritis, often bilaterally with initially severe vision loss and optic disc edema. However, in contrast to aquaporin 4-IgG-seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, visual recovery tends to be more favorable, with good response to steroid treatment. Another important differential diagnosis of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-IgG-associated optic neuritis is multiple sclerosis. Close monitoring for signs of relapse and long-term immunosuppression may be considered to maintain optimal visual function. The diagnosis can be made on the basis of the presence of a specific, usually serological, antibody against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (IgG; cell-based assay), and a demyelinating event (optic neuritis, myelitis, brainstem syndrome, or cortical lesions with seizures). The clinical spectrum of this newly recognized inflammatory demyelinating disease is expanding rapidly. We briefly review the epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestations, diagnostic considerations, and treatment options of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-IgG-associated optic neuritis.
Keywords: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein; Multiple sclerosis; Neuromyelitis optica; Optic neuritis