Purpose: To describe the clinical outcomes of manual scraping of epithelial ingrowth followed by compressed heating air flow after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).
Methods: We underwent a retrospective, noncomparative, and interventional case series. Twenty eyes of 17 patients were included in this study. Each patient with a history of LASIK underwent epithelial removal with mechanical debridement followed by compressed heating air flow. Our primary outcome was the recurrence of epithelial ingrowth after 3 months of follow-up, while our secondary outcomes were uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, and complications after surgery.
Results: Ten patients (58.8%) were male, and eight eyes of seven (41.2%) patients underwent primary LASIK surgery, while12 eyes of 10 patients had flap-lift retreatment LASIK; sixteen eyes (80.0%) underwent mechanical microkeratome LASIK and four (20.0%) underwent femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK. Mean age at surgical removal of epithelial ingrowth was 37.0 years ± 9.3 years (range 24 to 55 years). There was recurrence of ingrowth in two eyes (10%) after 3 months of follow-up. The mean corrected distance visual acuity of patients before surgery was 0.07 ± 0.09 logMAR, and after the last follow-up was 0.02 ± 0.04 logMAR (p=0.06). The odds ratio of presenting with epithelial ingrowth after LASIK enhancement compared to primary LASIK was 29.41.
Conclusion: Manual scraping followed by compressed heating air flow is a safe and effective treatment of clinically significant epithelial ingrowth after LASIK. At the last follow-up, no eye lost any line in corrected distance visual acuity.
Keywords: Epithelium/growth & development; Endothelium, corneal; Corneal diseases; Keratomileusis, laser in situ; Photorefractive keratectomy; Refractive surgery; Visual acuity
Purpose: To evaluate the profile of emergency eye-related visits at a reference eye hospital in Sao Paulo during the first months of the quarantine due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and to compare it with that in the same period of the previous year.
Methods: Data were obtained from the emergency department of Ophthal Hospital Especializado, Sao Paulo, Brazil. All the cases registered between March 23 and May 19, 2020, were included in the study as Group 2020. The cases registered between March 23 and May 19, 2019, were included in the study as Group 2019. Frequency tables were used for the descriptive analyses. The chi-square and Fisher exact tests were applied to compare categorical variables between the groups.
Results: We observe a decrease of 46.15% in the number of cases during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 compared with the same period in 2019. We observed a significant increase in the incidence rates of the following pathologies in 2020 compared with 2019: eyelid disorders (12.3%), corneal disorders (97.1%), retinal pathologies (173.1%), refraction (62.9%), glaucoma (acute and chronic; 43.9%), scleral alterations (68.8%), trauma (39.3%), herpes (54.7%), and cataracts (549.9%). On the other hand, the incidence rates of the following disorders decreased: conjunctivitis (-33.4%), disorders of lacrimal system (-81.0%), iridocyclitis (-39.9%), and postoperative visits (-80.1%).
Conclusion: During the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, we observed a drastic decrease in the number of patients who visited the emergency eye service. The main reasons for visiting were also changed, with higher frequencies of high-severity cases such as retina disturbances, cornea disturbances, glaucoma, and trauma and lower frequencies of transmittable conditions such as conjunctivitis.
Keywords: COVID-19; Emergencies; Social Isolation; Ophthalmology; Quarantine.
Purpose: To evaluate primary intraocular lens implantation in the treatment of children’s aphakia in the Brazilian public health system and compare the outcomes among different age groups.
Methods: Children aged 0-12 years old with unilateral or bilateral congenital/developmental cataracts and underwent primary intraocular lens implantation were included.
Results: A total of 108 eyes from 68 children were evaluated, and the children were divided into four age groups (<7 months [mo]; 7 mo-2 years old [y/o]; 2-5 y/o, and >5 y/o) were evaluated. Nineteen eyes (17.59%) presented visual axis opacification as a postoperative complication, which was more frequently observed in the <7 mo age group (37.93%). The difference was significant between the <7 mo and >5 y/o age groups (p=0.002). Visual axis opacification was divided into two categories: pupillary membrane and lens cell proliferation. Eight eyes presented pupillary membrane, whereas 14 showed lens cell proliferation. Out of eight eyes with pupillary membrane, seven occurred in the <7 mo age group. The difference between the <7 mo age group and the 2-5 y/o or >5 y/o age group was significant (p=0.01). Lens cell proliferation was more frequent in the <7 mo and 2-5 y/o age groups, but the difference was significant only between the < 7 mo age group and >5 y/o age group (p=0.040). Glaucoma and glaucoma suspect cases were not observed during the follow-up period.
Conclusions: The main complication found in the study was visual axis opacification, which had a higher incidence in children operated on or before the age of 7 months.
Keywords: Cataract extraction; Intraocular lens; Intraoperative complications; Glaucoma; Anterior eye segment; Child.
Purpose: The nasal sector of the anterior chamber angle may present a higher density of collector channels, which may influence the results of angle surgeries. Considering the anatomical differences in the anterior chamber angle, we compared the results of the nasal and temporal 180° selective laser trabeculoplasty approaches for open-angle glaucoma.
Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients with open-angle glaucoma (primary, pseudoexfoliation, and pigmentary) who underwent at least one 180° selective laser trabeculoplasty session between December 2016 and October 2018. The nasal (N1) or temporal (T1) sectors were chosen at the physician’s discretion. Patients who did not experience decreased intraocular pressure between 3 and 6 months again underwent 180° selective laser trabeculoplasty in the opposite angle sector (T2 and N2). The main outcome measured was decrease in intraocular pressure at 6-month follow-up, after the last selective laser trabeculoplasty. A multivariable regression analysis was used to evaluate factors associated with decreased intraocular pressure after treatment.
Results: The procedure was performed initially in 45 eyes (N1, 25; T1, 20 eyes) and repeated in the opposite anterior chamber angle sector in 19 eyes (N2, 11; T2, 8 eyes). Analysis of variance revealed that only the N1 approach presented a significant difference in the decrease in intraocular pressure as compared with the T1, N2, and T2 approaches (p=0.0014). The baseline intraocular pressure (p=0.021) and anterior chamber angle sector (N1; p=0.044) correlated with decreased intraocular pressure.
Conclusion: Compared with the temporal approach, 180° selective laser trabeculoplasty performed initially in the nasal sector was associated with a more significant decrease in intraocular pressure. Considering the sectorial differences in the anterior chamber angle, further prospective trials are warranted to confirm our findings and provide more-efficient selective laser trabeculoplasty protocols.
Keywords: Glaucoma; open-angle; Laser therapy/methods; Intraocular pressure; Trabeculectomy/methods.
Purpose: To compare viscotrabeculotomy with anterior chamber irrigation to Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for secondary glaucoma following silicone oil removal.
Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 43 vitrectomized pseudophakic eyes with persistent glaucoma after silicone oil removal. Patients were randomized to either viscotrabeculotomy with anterior chamber irrigation or Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. All patients were examined on day 1, week 1, and months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 postoperatively. Postoperative complications were noted. Success was defined as an intraocular pressure between 6 and 20 mmHg and with an intraocular pressure reduction of >30% compared with the preoperative intraocular pressure.
Results: There were 22 eyes in the viscotrabeculotomy with anterior chamber irrigation and 21 eyes in the Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation group. The mean preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure in the viscotrabeculotomy with anterior chamber irrigation and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation groups were 35.5 ± 2.6 mmHg and 35.5 ± 2.4 mmHg and 16.9 ± 0.7 mmHg and 17.9 ± 0.9 mmHg respectively (p˂0.0001). There was a statistically significant intraocular pressure reduction at all follow-up time points compared to preoperative values (p˂0.0001) in both groups. The unqualified success rate in the viscotrabeculotomy with anterior chamber irrigation and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation groups were 72.73% and 61.9%, respectively. A minimal self-limited hyphema was the most common complication.
Conclusions: Both viscotrabeculotomy with anterior chamber irrigation and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation are effective in lowering the intraocular pressure in glaucoma after silicone oil removal with viscotrabeculotomy with anterior chamber irrigation providing greater reduction, higher success rates, and minimal complications.
Keywords: Glaucoma drainage; implant; Glaucoma; Retinal detachment; Silicone oil; Trabeculectomy; Intravitreal Injection; Intraocular pressure; Postoperative complication; Ophthalmic solution; Dexamethasone; Ofloxacin.
Purpose: To evaluate the clinical performance of the Spot Vision Screener and establish clinical correlations between automated screening and retinoscopy following induction of cycloplegia in preverbal children.
Methods: In this prospective, cross-sectional study, children aged 6-36 months were evaluated using the Spot Vision Screener. A complete ophthalmologic examination, including cycloplegic refraction assessment, was performed, followed by repeat spot vision screening and retinoscopy in all cases to establish correlations regarding hypermetropia, myopia, and astigmatism following induction of induction cycloplegia.
Results: The study included 185 children. The sensitivity of the automated screener after cycloplegia was 100% (95%CI: 85.18-100%), and specificity was 87.04% (95%CI: 80.87-91.79%). Positive and negative predictive values were 52.27% (42.36-62.01%) and 100%, respectively. Compared to retinoscopy, the Spot Vision Screener overestimated spherical values by 0.62 D (95%CI: 0.56-0.69) in the right eye and by 0.60 (95%CI: 0.54-0.66) in the left eye and cylindrical values by -0.38 D in the right eye (95%CI: -0.42--0.33) and by -0.39 D in the left eye (95%CI: -0.43-0.34). For overall spherical and cylindrical values, the difference was 0.61 D (95%CI: 0.57-0.65) and -0.38 D (95%CI: -0.41--0.35) in the left and right eyes, respectively.
Conclusion: A substantial correlation was found between retinoscopy and objective data captured by the device. This shows that technology can be used in conjunction, reaching a more accurate diagnosis and identifying amblyopia risk factors as early as possible. Photoscreening may make a difference at the population level for early screening and intervention.
Keywords: Refractive errors; Amblyopia; Strabismus; Refractometry; Retinoscopy
Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados dos implantes de by-pass trabecular como terapia de substituição aos colírios em pacientes com glaucoma de ângulo aberto controlados com medicação vs. não controlados com medicação.
Métodos: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo de olhos submetidos a cirurgia de implante de by-pass trabecular de primeira (iStent) ou segunda geração (iStent inject). O Grupo 1 consistiu em olhos com pressão intraocular medicada <18 mmHg e o Grupo 2 consistiu em olhos com pressão intraocular medicada ≥18 mmHg. Os principais desfechos foram as taxas de sucesso relativo (com ou sem medicamentos) e completo (sem medicamentos) em diferentes pressões intraoculares-alvo, redução média (%) no uso de medicamentos e proporção de olhos sem medicamentos.
Resultados: A média de idade foi de 70,4 anos no Grupo 1 (n=105) e 68,1 anos no Grupo 2 (n=65). As taxas de sucesso relativo para pressão intraocular <18 mmHg, pressão intraocular <15 mmHg e pressão intraocular <12 mmHg foram semelhantes entre os grupos (Grupo 1: 96,2%, 88,6% e 32,4%, respectivamente; Grupo 2: 93,8%, 78,5% e 21,5%, respectivamente; todos p>0,05). As taxas de sucesso completo foram significativamente maiores no Grupo 1 do que no Grupo 2: pressão intraocular <18 mmHg (76,2% vs. 47,7%); pressão intraocular <15 mmHg (73,3% vs. 40%); pressão intraocular <12 mmHg (14,3% vs. 4,6%). A redução média no uso de medicamentos foi maior no Grupo 1 do que no Grupo 2. Ao final do acompanhamento, 79,0% dos olhos do Grupo 1 e 47,7% dos olhos do Grupo 2 estavam livres medicamentos.
Conclusões: Ambos os grupos mostraram altas taxas de sucesso relativo, mas olhos com pressão intraocular medicada pré-operatória <18 mmHg apresentaram taxas de sucesso completo mais elevadas, bem como maiores chances de se tornarem livres de medicamentos para glaucoma.
Keywords: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures; Cataract extraction; Glaucoma, open-angle; Glaucoma/therapy; Glaucoma/surgery
Purpose: To characterize patients with suspected glaucoma who were referred to the clinic for suspected glaucoma in a tertiary public hospital in southern Brazil and to evaluate differences in functional and structural damages between patients diagnosed with different types of glaucoma, those with normal eye examination results, and those who remained as glaucoma suspects.
Methods: This is a cohort study of patients referred by general ophthalmologists to the clinic for suspected glaucoma at Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, Porto Alegre, Brazil, between March 2016 and December 2018. The patients were followed up until they had undergone reliable examinations (eye examination, visual field screening, and optic coherence tomography for classification as normal and having a suspected glaucoma, glaucoma with an elevated intraocular pressure, normotensive glaucoma, or ocular hypertension.
Results: A total of 135 patients were included in this study. Of the patients, 117 subjects completed all examinations and met the inclusion criteria. Most patients were normal (36.8%), followed by those with suspected glaucoma (25.64%), normal tension glaucoma (18.8%), glaucoma with elevated intraocular pressure (12%), and ocular hypertensive (6%). The main reason for referral was increased optic nerve head cupping. The patients with normal tension glaucoma were older than the other subjects on average (p=0.03). In addition, the normal tension glaucoma group had a significantly worse baseline visual field index and mean deviation of the visual field than the normal, glaucoma suspect, and ocular hypertensive groups. The circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer on OCT was thinner on average in the normal tension glaucoma group than in the normal and glaucoma suspect groups (p<0.002) but did not significantly differ between the glaucoma group with elevated intraocular pressure and the other groups.
Conclusions: Patients with normal tension glaucoma tend to be diagnosed later because of their normal intraocular pressures; thus, the optic nerve cupping must be greater to raise the suspicion of glaucoma. In this study, we found that the patients with normal tension glaucoma had worse disease at the time of diagnosis.
Keywords: Glaucoma/diagnosis; Ocular hypertension; Glaucoma, open-angle/diagnosis; Glaucoma, angle-closure/diagnosis; Tertiary healthcare; Practice patterns, physicians’
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of intravitreal bevacizumab injections following a single dexamethasone implant in the treatment of macular edema secondary to branch and central retinal vein occlusion.
Methods: This was a prospective interventional non-comparative study, 44 eyes of patients with naïve macular edema related to branch and central retinal vein occlusion were treated with a dexamethasone implant. Patients were followed-up at four-week intervals from the second to the sixth month. If persistent or recurrent macular edema occurred during this period, the patient was treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections on an as-needed basis. The outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness changes.
Results: The mean best-corrected visual acuity changed from 0.97 ± 0.33 LogMAR at baseline to 0.54 ± 0.40 at the six-month post-implant examination (p<0.00001). Improvement ≥3 Snellen lines were seen in 20 eyes (45.54%). The mean central macular thickness at baseline was 670.25 ± 209.9 microns. This had decreased to 317.43 ± 112.68 microns at the six-month follow-up (p<0.00001). The mean number of intravitreal bevacizumab injections received in the six months post-implant was 2.32. The mean time from dexamethasone implant to first anti-VEGF injection was 3.45 months.
Conclusions: Intravitreal bevacizumab injections following a single dexamethasone implant were found to improve best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness in patients with macular edema due to branch and central retinal vein occlusion at six months, with few intravitreal injections required.
Keywords: Retinal vein occlusion/complications; Macular edema/drug therapy; Angiogenesis inhibitors/ therapeutic use; Dexamethasone/ administration & dosage; Intravitreal Injections; Bevacizumab; Tomography; optical coherence; Visual acuity.
Purpose: Blepharoptosis with coexisting strabismus can be observed in adults, and both these conditions affect cosmetic appearance and have psychosocial effects. Both also commonly require surgery, which is typically performed using a sequential approach. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of simultaneous Müller’s muscle-conjunctival resection with or without tarsectomy and strabismus surgery in adult patients with ptosis and coexisting strabismus.
Methods: Patients with ptosis and coexisting strabismus who underwent simultaneous Müller’s muscle-conjunctival resection with or without tarsectomy and horizontal strabismus surgery were retrospectively evaluated. Analysis included measurement of the angle of deviation in prism diopters, margin reflex distance, eyelid height asymmetry, and complications following surgery. Success of Müller’s muscle-conjunctival resection with or without tarsectomy was defined as a margin reflex distance of ≥3.5 and ≤5 mm with a difference between the two upper eyelids of <1 mm. Strabismus success was defined as alignment with ±10 prism diopters of orthotropia.
Results: The patients comprised three women and five men with a mean age of 37.12 years (range, 22-62 years). The strabismus stage of the surgery was performed first in all patients. Upper eyelid symmetry outcomes were assessed as perfect (<0.5 mm) in four patients and good (≥0.5 mm, <1 mm) in four patients. Success of Müller’s muscle-conjunctival resection with or without tarsectomy was achieved in six of eight patients (75%), and strabismus success was achieved in all patients. No revision eyelid or strabismus surgery was required following simultaneous surgery in any of the patients.
Conclusions: Müller’s muscle-conjunctival resection with or without tarsectomy combined with strabismus surgery may be an alternative approach for use in patients with ptosis and coexisting strabismus.
Keywords: Blepharoptosis/surgery; Amblyopia; Strabismus/surgery; Oculomotor muscles/surgery; Eyelids; Ophthalmologic surgical procedures/ methods
The aim of this study was to alert the ophthalmic community to an atypical manifestation of ocular surface squamous neoplasia, which may delay diagnosis and treatment and result in a guarded visual prognosis and significant sequelae. A 61-year-old immunocompetent man presented with an initial diagnosis of necrotizing scleritis in the right eye for 3 months. He was treated with systemic prednisone but experienced persistent pain and low visual acuity. Conjunctival biopsy of the affected region confirmed the diagnosis of invasive ocular surface squamous neoplasia, which progressed with intraocular and orbital invasion; thus, exenteration was performed. Masquerade syndrome should be suspected in patients with nodulo-ulcerative lesions of the conjunctiva and sclera. This clinical can be more aggressive, with a greater likelihood of intraocular and orbital involvement. The earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the patient prognosis.
Keywords: Neoplasms, squamous cell; Conjunctival neoplasms; Corneal diseases; Eye neoplasms; Scleritis; Interferon alpha-2
The aim of this case report is to present the case of a patient diagnosed as having coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who developed branch retinal vein occlusion in both eyes at different time points. A 48-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of mild COVID-19 and was diagnosed as having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection after polymerase chain reaction testing. Two months after the diagnosis, branch retinal vein occlusion was found in his left eye on fundoscopic examination, with a visual acuity of 20/100. In the third month of therapy, the same symptoms developed in the right eye and was diagnosed as branch retinal vein occlusion. The visual acuity was 10/100 in his right eye, which increased to 40/100 in the right eye and 30/100 in the left eye after treatment. The development of branch retinal vein occlusion can be observed during the mild stage of COVID-19, which triggers viral microangiopathy and hypercoagulation. Physicians should be strictly vigilant for retinal assessment in patients with vision loss due to a mild history of COVID-19.
Keywords: Retinal vein occlusion; Coronavirus infections; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2
Ocular metastases from systemic tumors are uncommon. The choroid is the most frequent target, with a preference for elderly individuals. Lung cancer is the predominant primary tumor that metastasizes to the eyes in males, although other ocular conditions such as uveitis and retinal lesions can mimic secondary tumor implants in ocular tissues. On fundoscopy, choroidal metastasis resembles other infectious processes, especially choroidal tuberculoma. Therefore, patients presenting with choroidal masses should undergo detailed clinical examinations, especially if the mass is the first manifestation of a systemic and severe disease. In this report, we describe a young man with a metastatic choroidal tumor secondary to papillary renal cell carcinoma mimicking a unilateral choroidal tuberculoma.
Keywords: Kidney neoplasms/complications; Metastases, neoplasm; Carcinoma, renal cell; Choroid neoplasms/etiology; Case reports
Staphylococcus hominis (S. hominis) is a coagulase-negative Staphylococci and an infrequent cause of endophthalmitis. Due to its ability to produce biofilm, especially in diabetic patients, strains may acquire antibiotic resistance. We present two cases of S. hominis endophthalmitis, one with acute endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab injection and one with chronic endophthalmitis following undiagnosed penetrating ocular trauma. Although there are only four published S. hominis endophthalmitis cases in the literature, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no previously published case after intravitreal bevacizumab.
Keywords: Endophthalmitis; Eye infection; bacterial; Staphylococcus hominis/isolation & purification; Bevacizumab; Intravitreal injection; Humans; Case report.
Schirmer strips and conjunctival swabs are used in ophthalmology for the collection of tears and fluids. One of the biggest challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic has been accurate diagnosis and, in some cases, ocular manifestations are among the first symptoms. In this context, this study aimed to collect evidence to support the use of Schirmer strips and conjunctival swabs as a method of sample collection for viral analysis. A literature search was conducted following the Scoping Review protocol defined by The Joanna Briggs Institute. Studies were analyzed regarding virus research, collection methods, and sample analysis. The findings support that viruses can be detected on the ocular surface through analysis of Schirmer strips and conjunctival swabs. However, additional studies with larger samples and time data are necessary to confirm these conclusions.
Keywords: Antigen, surface/isolation & purification; Conjunctiva; Tears; Eye protein/analysis; Specimen handling; Polymerase chain reaction/methods; COVID-19; Eye manifestations