Purpose: To evaluate visual outcomes, satisfaction, and quality of life of patients assisted in a Medical School hospital by the Brazilian Public Health System, who underwent bilateral diffractive multifocal intraocular lens implantation.
Methods: Case series study with intervention, including 20 patients who underwent bilateral implantation of multifocal IOL EyeDiff® (Eyeol UK, Dunstable, UK). Exclusion criteria were corneal astigmatism >1.5 cylindrical diopters, previous ocular surgery or ocular disease, and intra- or postoperative complications. Patients were evaluated one, three, and six months after surgery. Monocular and binocular visual acuity for distance, intermediate and near, under photopic and mesopic conditions, monocular contrast sensitivity under photopic conditions, defocus curve, and quality of life were assessed.
Results: Monocular distance-corrected visual acuity was 0.3 logMAR or better and monocular distance-corrected near visual acuity was J3 or better in all eyes under photopic conditions. Binocular distance-corrected near visual acuity was J1 in all cases. Contrast sensitivity was at the minimum level of normality for low and high spatial frequencies and within normal limits for intermediate spatial frequency. The quality of life questionnaire showed a high level of patient satisfaction.
Conclusion: Bilateral implantation of the multifocal intraocular lens EyeDiff® provides patients with good visual acuity and quality of life, besides spectacle independence. The visual acuity and contrast sensitivity progressively improved between one and six postoperative months.
Keywords: Visual acuity; Quality of life; Patient satisfaction; Lens implantation; intraocular; Unified Health System.
Purpose: To present the results of a retrospective study regarding the clinical and economic impact of intracameral cefuroxime administration to prevent endophthalmitis during cataract surgery in a referral hospital.
Methods: This study included 16,902 eyes from patients who had undergone cataract surgery between 2013 and 2017. From May 2014 onwards, all patients received routine intracameral injections of 1 mg cefuroxime (10 mg/1 mL) after phacoemulsification. The prophylactic efficacy was evaluated using the relative risk ratio, whereas the economic impact was evaluated using number needed to treat to avoid endophthalmitis.
Results: Before introducing cefuroxime, 3,407 cataract surgeries were performed using the phacoemulsification technique, and 7 post-operatory cases of endophthalmitis occurred (0.2% incidence). After introducing the cefuroxime protocol, 13,495 surgeries were performed, and 4 endophthalmitis cases were registered (0.03% incidence). Cefuroxime was identified as a protective factor against the development of endophthalmitis [risk ratio = 14%, p=0.002, 95% confidence interval (CI) 95%, 4%-49%], with an economic impact of number needed to treat = 568. The potential savings with cefuroxime was approximately US $2,334.36 for every 568 patients treated.
Conclusion: The incidence of endophthalmitis decreased by 86% (risk ratio = 14%, p=0.002, 95% CI, 4%-49%) after introducing intracameral cefuroxime prophylaxis at the study hospital. The results presented herein provide strong evidence for the use of cefuroxime in endophthalmitis prophylaxis after phacoemulsification surgeries, outperforming the alternative by providing both economic and clinical benefits.
Keywords: Cataract extraction; Endophthalmitis; Cefuroxime; Antibiotic prophylaxis; Cost-effectiveness evaluation.
Purpose: To compare strip meniscometry and Schirmer tear test 1 results and tear film breakup time between dogs with normal eyes and dogs diagnosed with keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
Methods: One-hundred fifty-six eyes of 78 dogs, 88 normal eyes, and 68 eyes diagnosed with keratoconjunctivitis sicca were included in the study. The tests were performed in the following sequence: Schirmer tear test 1 was used to allocate the dogs to the normal or keratoconjunctivitis sicca group, followed by the strip meniscometry test and tear film breakup time measurement.
Results: The results (mean ± standard deviation) of the tests in the normal group were as follows: Schirmer tear test 1, 22.75 ± 3.88 mm/min; strip meniscometry test, 10.01 ± 2.35 mm/5 sec; and tear film breakup time, 25.82 ± 5.47 sec. In the keratoconjunctivitis sicca group, the results were as follows: Schirmer tear test 1, 6.10 ± 4.44 mm/min; strip meniscometry test, 3.03 ± 2.62 mm/5 sec; and tear film breakup time, 10.78 ± 4.23 sec. The Spearman correlation coefficient in the keratoconjunctivitis sicca group was very high, with a significant difference between the strip meniscometry test and Schirmer tear test 1 (r=0.848, p<0.001), and moderate and significant between the strip meniscometry test and tear film breakup time (r=0.773, p<0.001). The cutoff for the strip meniscometry test for keratoconjunctivitis sicca was 7.0 mm/5 sec. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca was suspected when the values were <10 mm/5 sec.
Conclusions: This study provided strip meniscometry test values from dogs with normal eyes and eyes with keratoconjunctivitis sicca, with high sensitivity and specificity compared with those of the Schirmer tear test 1. In the future, the strip meniscometry test may be another important quantitative test and could complement the gold standard Schirmer tear test for the diagnosis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs, an excellent animal model for the study of the disease.
Keywords: Keratoconjunctivitis sicca; Schirmer tear test; Strip meniscometry test; Tear film breakup time; Dogs.
Purpose: This study aimed to use computational models for simulating the movement of respiratory droplets when assessing the efficacy of standard slit-lamp shield versus a new shield designed for increased clinician comfort as well as adequate protection.
Methods: Simulations were performed using the commercial software Star-CCM+. Respiratory droplets were assumed to be 100% water in volume fraction with particle diameter distribution represented by a geometric mean of 74.4 (±1.5 standard deviation) μm over a 4-min duration. The total mass of respiratory droplets expelled from patients’ mouths and droplet accumulation on the manikin were measured under the following three conditions: with no slit-lamp shield, using the standard slit-lamp shield, and using our new proposed shield.
Results: The total accumulated water droplet mass (kilogram) and percentage of expelled mass accumulated on the shield under the three aforementioned conditions were as follows: 5.84e-10 kg (28% of the total weight of particle emitted that settled on the manikin), 9.14e-13 kg (0.045%), and 3.19e-13 (0.015%), respectively. The standard shield could shield off 99.83% of the particles that would otherwise be deposited on the manikin, which is comparable to 99.95% for the proposed design.
Conclusion: Slit-lamp shields are effective infection control tools against respiratory droplets. The proposed shield showed comparable effectiveness compared with conventional slit-lamp shields, but with potentially enhanced ergonomics for ophthalmologists during slit-lamp examinations.
Keywords: Ophthalmologi sts; Coronavirus infections/prevention & control;Pandemics; Lipid droplets; SARS-CoV-2; Slit-lamp; Computer simulation; Protectivedevices; Equipment design.
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of soft HydroCone silicone hydrogel contact lenses in patients with posterior microphthalmos.
Methods: The charts of 13 patients with posterior microphthalmos (26 eyes) who were fitted with soft HydroCone silicone hydrogel contact lenses were reviewed retrospectively. All the patients underwent assessments of uncorrected and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity and cycloplegic refraction. They were fitted with contact lenses according to the parameter values obtained from the topographical analysis and best contact lens-corrected visual acuity measurement.
Results: The spherical equivalents of the right and left eyes ranged from 10.00 to 19.25 diopters and from 11.00 to 21.5 diopters, respectively. The mean axial and posterior chamber lengths were shorter than those of the age-matched population. However, the mean values of the anterior segment parameters such as horizontal visible iris diameter, central anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and central corneal thickness were in the normal range. The mean keratometric measurements revealed increased corneal curvature compared with that in the normal population. The mean best contact lens-corrected visual acuity was significantly higher than the mean best spectacle-corrected visual acuity for both eyes (p=0.045).
Conclusion: HydroCone silicon soft contact lenses provided better visual acuity than spectacles in the patients with posterior microphthalmos in this study.
Keywords: Microphthalmos; Contact lens; hydrophilic; Silicone; Vision disorder/rehabilitation; Visual acuity.
Purpose: This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty in contralateral eyes of the same patients.
Methods: In this retrospective, comparative case series, clinical outcome data included best-corrected visual acuity, refractive spherical equivalent, refractive astigmatism, endothelial cell density, endothelial cell loss, central corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure, which were evaluated at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty. Additionally, complications were assessed.
Results: Fifty-two eyes (26 patients) were included, of which 19 patients had keratoconus, 6 had stromal dystrophy, and 1 had post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis ectasia. The mean follow-up was 44.1 ± 10.5 months in the deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty Group and 47.9 ± 11.9 months in the penetrating keratoplasty Group. No significant differences were observed in the mean best-corrected visual acuity, refractive spherical equivalent, refractive astigmatism, and central corneal thickness between the deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty Groups during follow-up. The endothelial cell density was significantly higher in the deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty Group than in the penetrating keratoplasty Group at 24 and 36 months postoperatively (p=0.022 and 0.013, respectively). Endothelial cell loss was significantly lower in the deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty Group than in the penetrating keratoplasty Group at 24 and 36 months postoperatively (p=0.025 and 0.001, respectively). Intraocular pressure was significantly lower in the deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty Group than in the penetrating keratoplasty Grroup at 6 months postoperatively (p=0.015). Microperforation occurred in 4 eyes (15%) during deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty surgery; however, penetrating keratoplasty was not required. No endothelial rejection occurred in the penetrating keratoplasty Group during follow-up.
Conclusions: Over the 3-year follow-up, endothelial cell loss and intraocular pressure in the deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty Group were significantly lower than those in the penetrating keratoplasty Group, while visual and refractive results were similar.
Keywords: Corneal diseases/surgery; Keratoconus/surgery; Keratoplasty; penetrating/methods; Corneal transplantation/methods; Intraocular pressure; Comparative study.
Purpose: To investigate the antibiotic susceptibility as well as the clinical, epidemiological, and microbiological profiles of microbial keratitis.
Methods: This was a longitudinal retrospective study, and we retrospectively reviewed medical and laboratory records from 2015 to 2019.
Results: In total, 380 pathogens (321 bacteria and 59 fungi) were isolated from the corneas of 352 patients. Staphylococcus species (45%) were most abundant within the organisms that were isolated, followed by Pseudomonas (18.4%), fungi (15.5%), Streptococcus (7.9%), and Serratia species (3.2%). The isolated gram-positive bacteria were not resistant to amikacin or vancomycin, although 14.8% of the gram-positive isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (p<0.05). All the gram-negative isolates were susceptible to amikacin. Male patients represented 62.8% of the 129 cases with accessible clinical data. The mean age of the patients was 53.17 ± 21 years. The time to presentation (from onset of symptoms) was 14.9 ± 19.4 days (median: 7 days). Large ulcers (>5 mm in any dimension) were present in 49.6% (64 eyes) of the cases. The duration of treatment was 49 ± 45.9 days (median: 38 days). Direct ocular trauma was reported by 48 (37.2%) patients, and 15 patients (11.6%) reported using contact lenses. For 72 (55.8%) patients, topical treatment had been previously prescribed, and 16 (12.4%) patients reported using other classes of drugs. Hospitalizations were required for 79 (61.2%) patients, and in terms of major complications, 53 (41.1%) patients had corneal perforations. A total of 40 patients (31%) underwent tectonic penetrating keratoplasty, and 28 (21.7%) developed secondary glaucoma. A progression to endophthalmitis occurred in 8 (6.2%) patients, with 50% of those patients’ (3.1% of the total) endophthalmitis evolving to evisceration. The patients’ microbial keratitis was largely treated empirically, with 94 (72.9%) patients prescribed moxifloxacin and 56 (43.4%) prescribed ciprofloxacin before receiving their culture results.
Conclusions: For the most part, our hospital treated patients with severe microbial keratitis. Despite identifying gram-positive bacteria in most of the isolates, we also frequently identified gram-negative rods and fungi. Our susceptibility results support prescribing a combination of vancomycin and amikacin as an effective empirical therapeutic regimen to treat microbial keratitis.
Keywords: Keratitis; Eye infections; bacterial; Anti-bacterial agents.
Purpose: To examine the efficacy of phototherapeutic keratectomy as a treatment for variable pathologies with anterior corneal opacities and evaluate the distribution of phototherapeutic keratectomy indications over the past 10 years.
Methods: The records of 334 eyes from 276 patients who underwent phototherapeutic keratectomy between March 2010 and 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Etiologies of the patients who underwent phototherapeutic keratectomy were noted, and their changes were examined. Refractive and visual acuity results before and after the operation were recorded and analyzed according to etiology.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 40.7 ± 16.2 years (range: 19-84). The mean follow-up was 25.5 ± 19.1 months (range: 3-96). Phototherapeutic keratectomy was most frequently applied for corneal stromal dystrophies (44%, 151 eyes from 111 patients), and granular dystrophy was the most common phototherapeutic keratectomy indication among corneal dystrophies. Unlike other indications, there has been an increase in the application of phototherapeutic keratectomy for persistent subepithelial opacities due to adenoviral conjunctivitis in the past 10 years. There was a significant increase in visual acuity in all groups except for the recurrent epithelial defect group (p<0.05). The greatest improvement in visual acuity was detected for stromal dystrophies in the granular dystrophy subgroup.
Conclusion: Despite changing indication trends, phototherapeutic keratectomy remains an effective and reliable treatment for anterior corneal lesions.
Keywords: Photorefractive keratectomy; Corneal opacity; Corneal injuries; Corneal dystrophies; Phototherapy.
Purpose: To compare the radiologic and clinical features of primary lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed imaging findings and medical records of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Results: Eleven patients with pleomorphic adenoma and 16 patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma were evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups regarding age or sex. Proptosis was the most common presenting symptom in both groups. Adenoid cystic carcinomas were more likely to present with a palpable mass, diplopia, pain, and sensory loss than pleomorphic adenomas, although the differences were not statistically significant between groups. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in terms of homogeneity and globe indentation between lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma on computed tomography (CT)(all p>0.05). The rates of bone invasion, tumor calcification, and wedge sign were significantly higher in adenoid cystic carcinomas, and bone remodeling was statistically significantly higher in pleomorphic adenomas, on CT(all p<0.05). Pleomorphic adenomas were significantly more likely to show well-defined margins, lobulated contours, heterogeneous contrast enhancement, and hyperintensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (all p<0.05).
Conclusion: When differentiating between lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma, evaluation of radiologic features along with clinical features is of great importance. Lobulated contours may be a significant distinguishing radiologic feature suggesting pleomorphic adenoma.
Keywords: Lacrimal apparatus/pathology; Adenoma; pleomorphic; Carcinoma; adenoid cystic; Computed tomography; x-ray; Magnetic resonance imaging.
Purpose: To compare ocular surface parameters in rosacea patients with those of controls.
Methods: Ninety-three participants took part in this cross-sectional, observational, non-interventional study. These consisted of a rosacea group (n=40) and a control group (n=53). We compared objective parameters of the ocular surface, including conjunctival hyperemia, tear film stability and volume, meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye disease, and ocular surface staining, between the two groups.
Results: In the rosacea group, 69.23% were female. The mean age was 47.34 ± 12.62 years old. No statistically significant differences between groups were found in visual acuity (p=0.987), tear film parameters (tear meniscus height (p=0.338), noninvasive tear film rupture time (p=0.228), invasive rupture time (p=0.471), Schirmer’s test scores (p=0.244), conjunctival hyperemia (p=0.106), and fluorescein staining (p=0.489). Significant differences were found in meibography evaluations (p=0.026), mucous layer integrity (p=0.015), and ocular surface symptoms (p<0.0001). Rosacea patients also showed important eyelid differences in glandular expressibility (p<0.001), glandular secretion pattern (p<0.001), and telangiectasia (p<0.001) compared to controls.
Conclusion: Meibomian gland dysfunction is frequently associated with dermatological conditions. It can be observed in morphological findings from meibography as well as lipid secretion impairment, leading to evaporative dry eye, ocular surface dysfunction, and inflammation.
Keywords: Rosacea/complications; Meibomian gland dysfunction; Conjunctiva; Dry eye syndromes; Diagnostic techniques; ophthalmological.
Lymphatic malformation is a rare orbital tumor that used to be treated surgically, with high complication rates, or recently with intralesional bleomycin injection. We report for the first time the histopathological changes of eyelid lymphatic malformation after water-soluble intralesional bleomycin injection in a 20-year-old woman who had unsuccessful orbital surgical debulking during childhood. The changes confirmed the assumption of fibrosis induced by intralesional bleomycin injection. The minimal bleeding during surgical intervention made it much easier than the usual lymphatic malformation bloody procedure, without postoperative recurrences and with favorable aesthetic outcomes.
Keywords: Lymphangioma; Bleomycin; Lymphatic abnormality.
We report the case of a 39-year-old male patient who presented with visual loss in the right eye for 6 weeks. The best-corrected visual acuity was counting fingers in the right eye and 20/30 in the left eye. The fundus examination demonstrated a right retinal detachment inferiorly extending to the fovea and a left macular serous detachment. After multimodal imaging study, the patient was diagnosed as having a bullous variant of central serous chorioretinopathy and treated with oral spironolactone associated with adjuvant laser photocoagulation. The retinal changes resolved after 6 months. The final visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes.
Keywords: Retinal detachment; Central serous chorioretinopathy; Retinal pigment epithelium detachment; Spironolactone; Aldosterone antagonist
We report two cases of stage 3A unilateral Coats’ disease in pediatric patients. In both cases, disease control was achieved using a dexamethasone intravitreal implant in addition to other treatments. The treatment improved visual acuity in one patient and prevented the worsening of the decline in visual acuity in the other patient during follow-up periods of 7 and 3 years, respectively. One of the patients presented an increase in intraocular pressure, which was controlled with topical antiglaucoma medication, but developed a cataract that required surgery. In conclusion, dexamethasone intravitreal implant may be a useful adjuvant treatment to consider in some pediatric cases with Coats’ disease.
Keywords: Retinal telangiectasis; Retinal detachment; Cryotherapy; Dexamethasone; Drug implant; Human; Case report
Bacterial keratitis caused by multidrug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a therapeutic challenge due to a limited number of active antimicrobials and rapid progression to corneal necrosis and perforation. To report the use of topical colistin and surgical tarsorrhaphy in a case of keratitis caused by extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. A 56-year-old male was admitted to the intensive care unit with clinical symptoms of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. During his stay in the unit, he developed rapidly progressive keratitis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to all drugs except for colistin on culture. Due to incomplete lid closure, a temporary tarsorrhaphy was performed, and a regimen of descending-dose topical colistin was initiated. After five weeks, keratitis resolved completely. Extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an unusual cause of bacterial keratitis. We describe the safe and effective use of topical colistin in a case with severe corneal involvement.
Keywords: Keratitis; Eye infection; bacterial; Drug resistance; Pseudomonas infection; Colistin; Genes MDR; COVID-19.
Cycloplegia is crucial for reliable pediatric ophthalmology examinations. This document provides a recommendation for pediatric cycloplegia and mydriasis for Brazilian ophthalmologists. This article was developed based on literature reviews; the clinical experience of Brazilian specialists, as obtained through questionnaires; and the consensus of the Expert Committee of the Brazilian Pediatric Ophthalmology Society. According to the best evidence and formulations available in Brazil, this committee recommends the use of one drop of 1% cyclopentolate plus one drop of 1% tropicamide in children older than 6 months and two drops of 1% tropicamide 0-5 minutes apart for those younger than 6 months. Mydriasis may be increased by a single drop of 2.5% phenylephrine. For retinopathy of prematurity screening, the recommendation is 0.5% or 1% tropicamide, administered two or three times, 5 minutes apart, and 2.5% phenylephrine, used preferably once. In all scenarios, we recommend the use of a prior drop of 0.5% proxymetacaine.
Keywords: Mydriatics; Refraction; ocular; Infant; newborn; Child; diagnostic techniques; ophthalmological.