Purpose: To describe the frequency, clinical characteristics, complications, and management of glaucoma in eyes that underwent keratoprosthesis implantation.
Methods: Patients who underwent keratoprosthesis surgery between June 2010 and January 2020 were retrospectively evaluated for glaucoma association and prognoses.
Results: Among 17 patients who underwent keratoprosthesis surgery, 9 (52.9%) were associated with underlying or keratoprosthesis-induced glaucoma. Five eyes (29.4%) had underlying glaucoma and underwent a glaucoma drainage device implantation at least 6 months before keratoprosthesis surgery. One eye (5.9%) with normal intraocular pressure had glaucoma drainage device implantation at the same session with keratoprosthesis surgery due to high-risk characteristics of anterior segment structures. Four eyes with preexisting glaucoma showed progression after keratoprosthesis surgery. Additional antiglaucomatous treatment was commenced in two eyes whereas implantation of 2nd glaucoma drainage device was performed in two eyes. Postoperative complications in three eyes (100%) with glaucoma drainage device implanted 6 months before or at the same session with aphakic type keratoprosthesis surgery with partial vitrectomy included rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in two eyes and bacterial endophthalmitis in one eye. Migration of silicone oil through the tube to the subconjunctival area was seen after pars plana vitrectomy in one eye. None of the three eyes (0%) that underwent glaucoma drainage device implantation years before keratoprosthesis surgery experienced a posterior segment complication other than glaucomatous progression. Out of 11 eyes with no previous history of glaucoma, 3 (27.3%) showed high intraocular pressure and glaucomatous disc changes after keratoprosthesis surgery, which could be pharmacologically controlled.
Conclusions: In this cohort, eyes with preexisting glaucoma were more difficult to manage compared to eyes with de novo glaucoma after keratoprosthesis surgery. Retinal complications appeared more often when glaucoma drainage device implantation was performed no more than 6 months before aphakic type keratoprosthesis surgery with partial vitrectomy.
Keywords: Glaucoma/surgery; Intraocular pressure; Postoperative complication; Prosthesis implantation; Glaucoma drainage implant
We report an unusual case of fulminant endogenous Clostridium septicum panophthalmitis. A 74-year-old male patient presented with sudden amaurosis in the right eye, which in a few hours, evolved into an orbital cellulitis, endophthalmitis, anterior segment ischemia, and secondary perforation of the eye. A complete diagnostic study, which included cranial and orbital contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, blood cultures, and complete blood work, were performed. No causal agent was identified. Clostridium septicum infection caused fulminant gaseous panophthalmitis. Despite broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, evisceration of the eyeball was necessary. The extension study showed a colon adenocarcinoma as the origin of the infection. Clostridium septicum panophthalmitis is a rare but aggressive orbital infection. This infection warrants the identification of a neoplastic process in the gastrointestinal tract in many cases not previously described.
Keywords: Panophthalmitis; Adenocarcinoma; Colonic neoplasms; Clostridium septicum
The patient was a 26-year-old woman who had manifest refraction and uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities of -7.00 × -4.50 at 175°, 20/400, and 20/25, respectively, in the right eye, and -3.25 × -5.25 at 179°, 20/200, and 20/25, respectively, in the left eye. In the right and left eyes, the mean corneal thicknesses were 733 and 749 µm, and the maximum epithelial thicknesses were 70 and 68 µm, respectively. Myriads of intraepithelial cysts were observed in the slit-lamp examination. At 30 months after femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (femto-LASIK), the manifest refraction and uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities were respectively 0.00 × -1.25 at 55°, 20/25, and 20/20 in right eye, and 0.00 × -0.50 at 135°, 20/20, and 20/20 in the left eye. In this case of Meesmann dystrophy, myopia was successfully treated with thick flap femto-LASIK without complications or ectasia.
Keywords: Keratomileusis, laser in situ; Myopia; Corneal dystrophy, juvenile epithelial of Meesmann
Sarcoidosis is a generalized systemic chronic inflammation that rarely involves the orbit. As a chronic inflammation, sarcoidosis typically manifests with an insidious onset and slowly progressive course. We report a case of acute-onset proptosis resulting from a rapidly growing diffuse orbital mass that simulated malignant growth, which was biopsy proven to be the first manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis. The patient demonstrated complete resolution of proptosis and systemic involvement with long-term corticosteroid treatment.
Keywords: Sarcoidosis; Orbit/pathology; Exophthalmos; Lymphadenopathy
This case report aims to show the anatomical and functional results of a patient diagnosed as having cancer-associated retinopathy treated with a controlled-release dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex). Anatomical outcomes were assessed using spectral domain optical coherence tomography; and functional outcomes, by measuring visual acuity, microperimetry, and mutifocal electroretinography. The follow-up period was 1 year.
Keywords: Retinopathy; Dexamethasone; Paraneoplastic ocular syndromes; Electroretinography
Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate the Portuguese version of Catquest-9SF through its application in a native Brazilian population with cataracts and to determine the correlation of the questionnaire scores with preoperative visual acuity.
Methods: A prospective study was conducted to validate the Catquest-9SF questionnaire, which was translated and back-translated, generating a final version in Portuguese. A total of 120 Brazilian patients awaiting cataract surgery were recruited to answer the questionnaire and to document their preoperative data and visual acuity. The Rasch analysis was used to assess the instrument’s psychometric properties.
Results: The Portuguese version of Catquest-9SF demonstrated an acceptable adjustment of the items (item fit statistics ranging from 0.7 to 1.3), unidimensionality (principal component analysis), and good organization in the item response categories (thresholds of the categories: -2.79, 0.57, and 2.22, respectively). The questionnaire contains items with stable relationships if considered at the same level of visual impairment in the comparison between the two groups (absence of differential item functioning). The separation of people (person separation index, 3.07) was adequate. The visual acuity in the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) in the best eye with the best optical correction showed a statistically significant correlation with the Catquest-9SF logit score (r=0.282 and p=0.004).
Conclusions: The Portuguese version of Catquest-9SF presents evidence of validity and reliability, in addition to being linguistically and culturally understandable for Portuguese-speaking patients born in Brazil. The questionnaire is easy to understand and quick to apply, as it could adequately estimate the subjective visual functioning in patients with cataracts. We found a significant correlation between visual acuity and the questionnaire score.
Keywords: Cataract extraction; Sickness impact profile; Visual acuity; Surveys and questionnaires; Quality of life.
Interstitial keratitis is an inflammation of the corneal stroma without epithelium or endothelium involvement. The underlying causes are mostly infectious or immune mediated. Brazil has one of the highest incidence rates of tuberculosis in the world. Tuberculosis is considered one of the causes of interstitial keratitis. Malnutrition and anemia are risk factors of the disseminated disease. This is a case report of a 10-year-old child who presented with decreased visual acuity and a clinical diagnosis of bilateral interstitial keratitis and sclero-uveitis. The patient had been treated with topical steroids with partial improvement. Examinations revealed severe iron deficiency anemia, negative serologies for human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis, positivity for cytomegalovirus- and herpes simplex-specific IgG, and purified protein derivative of 17 mm. During the follow-up, the patient presented with tonic-clonic seizures, and magnetic resonance imaging findings suggested a central nervous system tuberculoma. Interstitial keratitis improvement was observed after specific tuberculosis treatment. This is the first case report describing the association of interstitial keratitis and central nervous system tuberculoma.
Keywords: Keratitis; Scleritis; Intracranial tuberculoma; Ocular tuberculosis; Anemia, iron deficiency; Humans; Case report
Ocular metastases from systemic tumors are uncommon. The choroid is the most frequent target, with a preference for elderly individuals. Lung cancer is the predominant primary tumor that metastasizes to the eyes in males, although other ocular conditions such as uveitis and retinal lesions can mimic secondary tumor implants in ocular tissues. On fundoscopy, choroidal metastasis resembles other infectious processes, especially choroidal tuberculoma. Therefore, patients presenting with choroidal masses should undergo detailed clinical examinations, especially if the mass is the first manifestation of a systemic and severe disease. In this report, we describe a young man with a metastatic choroidal tumor secondary to papillary renal cell carcinoma mimicking a unilateral choroidal tuberculoma.
Keywords: Kidney neoplasms/complications; Metastases, neoplasm; Carcinoma, renal cell; Choroid neoplasms/etiology; Case reports
The aim of this case report is to present the case of a patient diagnosed as having coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who developed branch retinal vein occlusion in both eyes at different time points. A 48-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of mild COVID-19 and was diagnosed as having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection after polymerase chain reaction testing. Two months after the diagnosis, branch retinal vein occlusion was found in his left eye on fundoscopic examination, with a visual acuity of 20/100. In the third month of therapy, the same symptoms developed in the right eye and was diagnosed as branch retinal vein occlusion. The visual acuity was 10/100 in his right eye, which increased to 40/100 in the right eye and 30/100 in the left eye after treatment. The development of branch retinal vein occlusion can be observed during the mild stage of COVID-19, which triggers viral microangiopathy and hypercoagulation. Physicians should be strictly vigilant for retinal assessment in patients with vision loss due to a mild history of COVID-19.
Keywords: Retinal vein occlusion; Coronavirus infections; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2
Purpose: Neovascular age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. We aimed to identify baseline predictors of visual prognosis after intravitreal conbercept injection for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 58 patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration who were treated with intravitreal injections of conbercept 0.5 mg in routine clinical practice. Basic information such as age, sex, intraocular pressure, and disease course was collected. Best-corrected visual acuity, mean retinal sensitivity, and optical coherence tomography findings were recorded at baseline and 6 months after treatment. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of best-corrected visual acuity at 6 months after treatment.
Results: After the 6-month treatment, the mean best-corrected visual acuity improved from 1.10 ± 0.42 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) to 0.41 ± 0.18 logMAR, the mean retinal sensitivity increased from 5.13 ± 0.86 dB to 7.32 ± 1.21 dB, the mean central retinal thickness decreased from 440.38 ± 61.05 µm to 260.01 ± 24.86 µm, and the total number of hyperreflective dots and the number of hyperreflective dots in each retina layer were significantly reduced as compared with those before treatment (all p<0.05). Twenty-two patients showed improved vision, and 36 had unimproved vision. Multivariate analyses revealed that the number of subretinal hyperreflective dots, the state of external limiting membrane, baseline best-corrected visual acuity, and age were independent predictors of best-corrected visual acuity (all p<0.05).
Conclusion: Poor recovery of patients after intravitreal conbercept injection may be related to the number of subretinal hyperreflective dots, the state of external limiting membrane, baseline best-corrected visual acuity, and age, which may be used as predictors of short-term visual outcomes and should be fully evaluated before operation.
Keywords: Macular degeneration; Intraviteal injections; Conbercept; Tomography, optical coherence
Purpose: Blepharoptosis with coexisting strabismus can be observed in adults, and both these conditions affect cosmetic appearance and have psychosocial effects. Both also commonly require surgery, which is typically performed using a sequential approach. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of simultaneous Müller’s muscle-conjunctival resection with or without tarsectomy and strabismus surgery in adult patients with ptosis and coexisting strabismus.
Methods: Patients with ptosis and coexisting strabismus who underwent simultaneous Müller’s muscle-conjunctival resection with or without tarsectomy and horizontal strabismus surgery were retrospectively evaluated. Analysis included measurement of the angle of deviation in prism diopters, margin reflex distance, eyelid height asymmetry, and complications following surgery. Success of Müller’s muscle-conjunctival resection with or without tarsectomy was defined as a margin reflex distance of ≥3.5 and ≤5 mm with a difference between the two upper eyelids of <1 mm. Strabismus success was defined as alignment with ±10 prism diopters of orthotropia.
Results: The patients comprised three women and five men with a mean age of 37.12 years (range, 22-62 years). The strabismus stage of the surgery was performed first in all patients. Upper eyelid symmetry outcomes were assessed as perfect (<0.5 mm) in four patients and good (≥0.5 mm, <1 mm) in four patients. Success of Müller’s muscle-conjunctival resection with or without tarsectomy was achieved in six of eight patients (75%), and strabismus success was achieved in all patients. No revision eyelid or strabismus surgery was required following simultaneous surgery in any of the patients.
Conclusions: Müller’s muscle-conjunctival resection with or without tarsectomy combined with strabismus surgery may be an alternative approach for use in patients with ptosis and coexisting strabismus.
Keywords: Blepharoptosis/surgery; Amblyopia; Strabismus/surgery; Oculomotor muscles/surgery; Eyelids; Ophthalmologic surgical procedures/ methods
Purpose: The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on choroidal thickness using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography.
Methods: This study evaluated the right eyes from 41 post-COVID-19 cases (Group 1) and 41 healthy subjects (Group 2). Choroidal thickness was measured using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Post-COVID-19 cases were evaluated within 1 month after a diagnosis of COVID-19. Two experienced ophthalmologists measured the choroidal thickness at the subfovea, temporal, and nasal quadrants at 500-μm intervals up to 1500 μm from the fovea at seven different points. Moreover, central macular thickness and ganglion cell layer thickness were measured via OCT, after which both two groups were compared.
Results: Group 1 showed a significantly thicker choroid compared to Group 2 at the subfovea, 500 μm temporal to the fovea, 500 and 1000 μm nasal to the fovea (p=0.011, p=0.043, p=0.009, and p=0.019, respectively). Although other areas measured were also thicker in Group 1, the difference was not significant (p>0.05). Moreover, no significant difference in the central macular thickness and ganglion cell layer thickness were observed between the groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Choroidal thickness was increased in post-COVID-19 patients, which might be related to inflammation associated with the pathogenesis of COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus infections; Optical coherence tomography; Choroid/pathology; Thickness; Eye manifestations
Purpose: To evaluate the stability and efficacy of the double-flanged 5-0 polypropylene suture to fixate subluxated cataracts at 18 months and the possible complications of this new technique.
Methods: This technique uses a 5-0 polypropylene monofilament to create two flanges with a thermocautery, for fixation of a capsular tension segment to the sclera to fix the subluxated capsular bag. This technique was implemented in 17 eyes requiring intraocular lens implantation in a setting of zonular dialysis due to trauma, Marfan syndrome, microspherophakia, idiopathic disease, and post-phacoemulsification status.
Results: Follow-up of the patients occurred at 18 months. Best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly from 0.85 to 0.39 (logMAR), whereas the spherical and cylindrical refractive errors and intraocular pressure remained stable from preoperation. No suture photodegradation or pseudophacodonesis were detected.
Conclusion: The double-flanged 5-0 polypropylene suture transscleral bag fixation technique has shown favorable long-term outcomes in terms of bag intraocular lens/complex fixation and stability. In eyes with zonular weakness or dialysis, this technique appears to be a safe and knotless option for cataract surgery.
Keywords: Cataract; Phacoemulsification; Lense; intraocular; Suture technique; Visual acuity
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of new cases and therapeutic approaches at the Ocular Oncology division from the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP).
Methods: A retrospective study was conducted by medical records review of new patients treated before the pandemic from March 2019 to September 2019 (pre-pandemic group) and during the pandemic from March 2020 to September 2020 (pandemic group). Data regarding age, sex, ethnicity, place of origin, clinical diagnosis, time since referral, and proposed therapy were analyzed.
Results: We analyzed 186 new cases, 122 from the pre-pandemic group and 64 from the pandemic group, representing a decrease of 47.54% in new cases. There was no statistically significant change in sex, race, state of origin, history of cancer, age, or time with suspected cancer (p>0.05). A higher frequency of malignancies was observed in the pandemic group (68%) when compared to the pre-pandemic group (48.48%). Benign tumors were the most common diagnosis in the pre-pandemic group (41.80%), while conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma was the modal diagnosis in the pandemic group (31.25%). There was a decreasing trend (p=0.097) in the number of surgeries (-7.63%) and an increase in topical treatment (+10.68%). There was also a tendency to perform fewer surgeries in benign tumors and decreased follow-up visits.
Conclusion: Our findings showed a significant decrease in the number of new cases referred to the Ocular Oncology service. Moreover, the pandemic led to a switch in the therapeutic approach with preference to non-invasive treatments that would demand operating rooms. A drastic increase of cases perhaps in advanced stages might be expected because of the decrease observed in the first six months of quarantine.
Keywords: Ocular neoplasms; COVID-19; Social isolation; Quarantine
After the discovery of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents as treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration, the number of studies with the objective to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the age-related macular degeneration genesis has increased. The importance of the nuclear factor e2-related factor 2 lies in its activation-derived proteins being involved in the maintenance of the redox balance and consequent prevention of degenerative macular disease. This article aims to present the characteristics of nuclear factor e2-related factor 2 and describe the main nuclear factor e2-related factor 2-activated antioxidant enzymes that contribute to the preservation of vision.
Keywords: Macular degeneration; NF-E2-Related Factor 2; Oxidation; Antioxidant response element; Enzyme activator
Purpose: To investigate ocular surface and meibomian glands in patients with treatment-naive acne vulgaris.
Methods: The Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, invasive tear film breakup time, fluorescein staining of the ocular surface, and Schirmer II test were performed for all subjects. Total eyelid and meibomian gland secretion scores were assessed. Non-contact meibography was performed with the Sirius corneal topographic device.
Results: The right eyes of 35 patients with acne vulgaris and 35 healthy volunteers were included the study. While the OSDI and staining scores were significantly higher in the acne group than in the control group (p=0.01 and p=0.003, respectively), the invasive tear film breakup time and Schirmer measurements were significantly lower in the acne group (p=0.000 and p=0.003, respectively). The total eyelid and meibomian gland secretion scores were also higher in the acne group than in the control group (p=0.003 and p=0.000, respectively). On the morphological evaluation of the meibomian glands, the thickening, thinning, tortuosity, and presence of ghost areas were statistically significantly more common in the acne vulgaris group than in the control group (p=0.000, p=0.001, p=0.05, and p=0.006, respectively). The percentage of the meibomian gland loss area was significantly high in the acne vulgaris group on both upper and lower meibography. The meibomian gland loss area positively correlated with total eyelid and meibomian gland secretion scores.
Conclusion: Acne vulgaris may have a predisposition to meibomian gland dysfunction and ocular surface damage. Early recognition of meibomian gland and ocular surface alterations seems important, especially in acne vulgaris cases for which oral isotretinoin treatment is planned.
Keywords: Acne vulgaris/complication; Acne vulgaris/drug therapy; Isotretinoin/therapeutic use; Eyelid; Conjunctiva/pathology; Dry eye syndrome; Meibomian gland; Diagnostic technique, ophthalmological; Questionnaire
The aim of this study was to alert the ophthalmic community to an atypical manifestation of ocular surface squamous neoplasia, which may delay diagnosis and treatment and result in a guarded visual prognosis and significant sequelae. A 61-year-old immunocompetent man presented with an initial diagnosis of necrotizing scleritis in the right eye for 3 months. He was treated with systemic prednisone but experienced persistent pain and low visual acuity. Conjunctival biopsy of the affected region confirmed the diagnosis of invasive ocular surface squamous neoplasia, which progressed with intraocular and orbital invasion; thus, exenteration was performed. Masquerade syndrome should be suspected in patients with nodulo-ulcerative lesions of the conjunctiva and sclera. This clinical can be more aggressive, with a greater likelihood of intraocular and orbital involvement. The earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the patient prognosis.
Keywords: Neoplasms, squamous cell; Conjunctival neoplasms; Corneal diseases; Eye neoplasms; Scleritis; Interferon alpha-2
We report two cases of stage 3A unilateral Coats’ disease in pediatric patients. In both cases, disease control was achieved using a dexamethasone intravitreal implant in addition to other treatments. The treatment improved visual acuity in one patient and prevented the worsening of the decline in visual acuity in the other patient during follow-up periods of 7 and 3 years, respectively. One of the patients presented an increase in intraocular pressure, which was controlled with topical antiglaucoma medication, but developed a cataract that required surgery. In conclusion, dexamethasone intravitreal implant may be a useful adjuvant treatment to consider in some pediatric cases with Coats’ disease.
Keywords: Retinal telangiectasis; Retinal detachment; Cryotherapy; Dexamethasone; Drug implant; Human; Case report
Purpose: To characterize patients with suspected glaucoma who were referred to the clinic for suspected glaucoma in a tertiary public hospital in southern Brazil and to evaluate differences in functional and structural damages between patients diagnosed with different types of glaucoma, those with normal eye examination results, and those who remained as glaucoma suspects.
Methods: This is a cohort study of patients referred by general ophthalmologists to the clinic for suspected glaucoma at Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, Porto Alegre, Brazil, between March 2016 and December 2018. The patients were followed up until they had undergone reliable examinations (eye examination, visual field screening, and optic coherence tomography for classification as normal and having a suspected glaucoma, glaucoma with an elevated intraocular pressure, normotensive glaucoma, or ocular hypertension.
Results: A total of 135 patients were included in this study. Of the patients, 117 subjects completed all examinations and met the inclusion criteria. Most patients were normal (36.8%), followed by those with suspected glaucoma (25.64%), normal tension glaucoma (18.8%), glaucoma with elevated intraocular pressure (12%), and ocular hypertensive (6%). The main reason for referral was increased optic nerve head cupping. The patients with normal tension glaucoma were older than the other subjects on average (p=0.03). In addition, the normal tension glaucoma group had a significantly worse baseline visual field index and mean deviation of the visual field than the normal, glaucoma suspect, and ocular hypertensive groups. The circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer on OCT was thinner on average in the normal tension glaucoma group than in the normal and glaucoma suspect groups (p<0.002) but did not significantly differ between the glaucoma group with elevated intraocular pressure and the other groups.
Conclusions: Patients with normal tension glaucoma tend to be diagnosed later because of their normal intraocular pressures; thus, the optic nerve cupping must be greater to raise the suspicion of glaucoma. In this study, we found that the patients with normal tension glaucoma had worse disease at the time of diagnosis.
Keywords: Glaucoma/diagnosis; Ocular hypertension; Glaucoma, open-angle/diagnosis; Glaucoma, angle-closure/diagnosis; Tertiary healthcare; Practice patterns, physicians’
Purpose: To evaluate the clinical performance of the Spot Vision Screener and establish clinical correlations between automated screening and retinoscopy following induction of cycloplegia in preverbal children.
Methods: In this prospective, cross-sectional study, children aged 6-36 months were evaluated using the Spot Vision Screener. A complete ophthalmologic examination, including cycloplegic refraction assessment, was performed, followed by repeat spot vision screening and retinoscopy in all cases to establish correlations regarding hypermetropia, myopia, and astigmatism following induction of induction cycloplegia.
Results: The study included 185 children. The sensitivity of the automated screener after cycloplegia was 100% (95%CI: 85.18-100%), and specificity was 87.04% (95%CI: 80.87-91.79%). Positive and negative predictive values were 52.27% (42.36-62.01%) and 100%, respectively. Compared to retinoscopy, the Spot Vision Screener overestimated spherical values by 0.62 D (95%CI: 0.56-0.69) in the right eye and by 0.60 (95%CI: 0.54-0.66) in the left eye and cylindrical values by -0.38 D in the right eye (95%CI: -0.42--0.33) and by -0.39 D in the left eye (95%CI: -0.43-0.34). For overall spherical and cylindrical values, the difference was 0.61 D (95%CI: 0.57-0.65) and -0.38 D (95%CI: -0.41--0.35) in the left and right eyes, respectively.
Conclusion: A substantial correlation was found between retinoscopy and objective data captured by the device. This shows that technology can be used in conjunction, reaching a more accurate diagnosis and identifying amblyopia risk factors as early as possible. Photoscreening may make a difference at the population level for early screening and intervention.
Keywords: Refractive errors; Amblyopia; Strabismus; Refractometry; Retinoscopy
Purpose: To describe the clinical outcomes of manual scraping of epithelial ingrowth followed by compressed heating air flow after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).
Methods: We underwent a retrospective, noncomparative, and interventional case series. Twenty eyes of 17 patients were included in this study. Each patient with a history of LASIK underwent epithelial removal with mechanical debridement followed by compressed heating air flow. Our primary outcome was the recurrence of epithelial ingrowth after 3 months of follow-up, while our secondary outcomes were uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, and complications after surgery.
Results: Ten patients (58.8%) were male, and eight eyes of seven (41.2%) patients underwent primary LASIK surgery, while12 eyes of 10 patients had flap-lift retreatment LASIK; sixteen eyes (80.0%) underwent mechanical microkeratome LASIK and four (20.0%) underwent femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK. Mean age at surgical removal of epithelial ingrowth was 37.0 years ± 9.3 years (range 24 to 55 years). There was recurrence of ingrowth in two eyes (10%) after 3 months of follow-up. The mean corrected distance visual acuity of patients before surgery was 0.07 ± 0.09 logMAR, and after the last follow-up was 0.02 ± 0.04 logMAR (p=0.06). The odds ratio of presenting with epithelial ingrowth after LASIK enhancement compared to primary LASIK was 29.41.
Conclusion: Manual scraping followed by compressed heating air flow is a safe and effective treatment of clinically significant epithelial ingrowth after LASIK. At the last follow-up, no eye lost any line in corrected distance visual acuity.
Keywords: Epithelium/growth & development; Endothelium, corneal; Corneal diseases; Keratomileusis, laser in situ; Photorefractive keratectomy; Refractive surgery; Visual acuity
Schirmer strips and conjunctival swabs are used in ophthalmology for the collection of tears and fluids. One of the biggest challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic has been accurate diagnosis and, in some cases, ocular manifestations are among the first symptoms. In this context, this study aimed to collect evidence to support the use of Schirmer strips and conjunctival swabs as a method of sample collection for viral analysis. A literature search was conducted following the Scoping Review protocol defined by The Joanna Briggs Institute. Studies were analyzed regarding virus research, collection methods, and sample analysis. The findings support that viruses can be detected on the ocular surface through analysis of Schirmer strips and conjunctival swabs. However, additional studies with larger samples and time data are necessary to confirm these conclusions.
Keywords: Antigen, surface/isolation & purification; Conjunctiva; Tears; Eye protein/analysis; Specimen handling; Polymerase chain reaction/methods; COVID-19; Eye manifestations
We report the case of a 39-year-old male patient who presented with visual loss in the right eye for 6 weeks. The best-corrected visual acuity was counting fingers in the right eye and 20/30 in the left eye. The fundus examination demonstrated a right retinal detachment inferiorly extending to the fovea and a left macular serous detachment. After multimodal imaging study, the patient was diagnosed as having a bullous variant of central serous chorioretinopathy and treated with oral spironolactone associated with adjuvant laser photocoagulation. The retinal changes resolved after 6 months. The final visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes.
Keywords: Retinal detachment; Central serous chorioretinopathy; Retinal pigment epithelium detachment; Spironolactone; Aldosterone antagonist
Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados dos implantes de by-pass trabecular como terapia de substituição aos colírios em pacientes com glaucoma de ângulo aberto controlados com medicação vs. não controlados com medicação.
Métodos: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo de olhos submetidos a cirurgia de implante de by-pass trabecular de primeira (iStent) ou segunda geração (iStent inject). O Grupo 1 consistiu em olhos com pressão intraocular medicada <18 mmHg e o Grupo 2 consistiu em olhos com pressão intraocular medicada ≥18 mmHg. Os principais desfechos foram as taxas de sucesso relativo (com ou sem medicamentos) e completo (sem medicamentos) em diferentes pressões intraoculares-alvo, redução média (%) no uso de medicamentos e proporção de olhos sem medicamentos.
Resultados: A média de idade foi de 70,4 anos no Grupo 1 (n=105) e 68,1 anos no Grupo 2 (n=65). As taxas de sucesso relativo para pressão intraocular <18 mmHg, pressão intraocular <15 mmHg e pressão intraocular <12 mmHg foram semelhantes entre os grupos (Grupo 1: 96,2%, 88,6% e 32,4%, respectivamente; Grupo 2: 93,8%, 78,5% e 21,5%, respectivamente; todos p>0,05). As taxas de sucesso completo foram significativamente maiores no Grupo 1 do que no Grupo 2: pressão intraocular <18 mmHg (76,2% vs. 47,7%); pressão intraocular <15 mmHg (73,3% vs. 40%); pressão intraocular <12 mmHg (14,3% vs. 4,6%). A redução média no uso de medicamentos foi maior no Grupo 1 do que no Grupo 2. Ao final do acompanhamento, 79,0% dos olhos do Grupo 1 e 47,7% dos olhos do Grupo 2 estavam livres medicamentos.
Conclusões: Ambos os grupos mostraram altas taxas de sucesso relativo, mas olhos com pressão intraocular medicada pré-operatória <18 mmHg apresentaram taxas de sucesso completo mais elevadas, bem como maiores chances de se tornarem livres de medicamentos para glaucoma.
Keywords: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures; Cataract extraction; Glaucoma, open-angle; Glaucoma/therapy; Glaucoma/surgery
Staphylococcus hominis (S. hominis) is a coagulase-negative Staphylococci and an infrequent cause of endophthalmitis. Due to its ability to produce biofilm, especially in diabetic patients, strains may acquire antibiotic resistance. We present two cases of S. hominis endophthalmitis, one with acute endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab injection and one with chronic endophthalmitis following undiagnosed penetrating ocular trauma. Although there are only four published S. hominis endophthalmitis cases in the literature, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no previously published case after intravitreal bevacizumab.
Keywords: Endophthalmitis; Eye infection; bacterial; Staphylococcus hominis/isolation & purification; Bevacizumab; Intravitreal injection; Humans; Case report.
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of corneal and conjunctival tumors on the ocular surface and quality of life of patients before and after surgical treatment.
Methods: This prospective study conducted a preoperative and 30- and 90-day postoperative assessment of patients diagnosed with conjunctival and corneal tumors. Demographic data were collected preoperatively. The 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaires were applied to assess patients’ quality of life and perception of their vision-related functions. The tear breakup time and Schirmer tests were performed for ocular surface evaluation. The tumor extensions were measured using ImageJ image analysis software.
Results: Twenty-three patients were enrolled. The mean age at examination was 52.8 ± 17.3 years (range: 27-9 years). The most common tumor type was squamous cell carcinoma (61.5%). The patients’ visual acuity improved significantly at 1 month and 3 months (p=0.018 and p=0.036, respectively). No significant differences were found between tear breakup time and Schirmer tests preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively (p=0.150 and p=0.490, respectively). The SF-12 scores demonstrated significant differences between the preoperative and 30- and 90-day postoperative mental components (p=0.008 and p=0.026, respectively). Tumor extension was 868.7 ± 344.9 pixels (range, 224.6-1481.6 pixels) and were significantly correlated with the preoperative (p=0.011), 30-day postoperative (p=0.017), and 90-day postoperative (p=0.012) SF-12 mental components, as well as the emotional component at the 30th postoperative day (p=0.016).
Conclusion: Patients with corneal and conjunctival tumors improved their ocular symptoms, visual acuity, and the emotional component of their quality of life after surgical excision of the tumor.
Keywords: Eye neoplasms; Conjunctival neoplasms; Corneal diseases; Visual acuity; Quality of life.
Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the factors influencing the visual gain following pars plana vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 172 eyes of 143 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus between January 2012 and January 2018. Demographic data, ophthalmological findings, surgery details, and visual outcomes were gathered after consulting the patients’ records. The main outcome measured was the improvement of best corrected visual acuity and the secondary outcomes measured were rebleeding and complications.
Results: Best corrected visual acuity improved in 103 eyes (59.88%), worsened in 45 eyes (26.16%), and remained unchanged in 24 eyes (13.95%). Type 2 diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with better final best corrected visual acuity (p=0.0244). Previous treatment by pan-retinal laser photocoagulation or intravitreal bevacizumab determined better final best corrected visual acuity, but not significantly (p>0.05). Preoperative rubeosis iridis and neovascular glaucoma did not influence the outcomes. The lack of fibrovascular proliferation requiring dissection was a significant factor for better final best corrected visual acuity (p=0.0006). Rebleeding occurred in 37.1% of the eyes and it was not influenced by the antiplatelet drugs (p>0.05). Postoperative neovascular glaucoma was a negative prognostic factor (p=0.0037).
Conclusion: The final best corrected visual acuity was influenced positively by type 2 diabetes mellitus and the absence of preoperative extensive fibrovascular proliferation and negatively by postoperative neovascular glaucoma.
Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy; Vitreous hemorrhage; Vitrectomy; Intravitreal injection; Visual acuity.
Purpose: To assess intraocular pressure and ocular pulse amplitude changes in obese children and adolescents using dynamic contour tonometry.
Methods: 137 cases, 64 obese and 73 healthy children, who were both age-matched and gender-matched, comprised the study population in this cross-sectional study. Children with body mass index values >95% for sex and age were regarded as obese. Participants underwent detailed ophthalmological examinations, including intraocular pressure measurement using a Pascal dynamic contour tonometer. Relationships between intraocular pressure and ocular pulse amplitude measurements and age, sex, obesity, pubertal status, and insulin resistance were investigated.
Results: Bilateral ocular pulse amplitude was lower while intraocular pressure was higher in the obese group than in the control group (p<0.001). No significant relationship was observed between insulin resistance and intraocular pressure or ocular pulse amplitude (p>0.005). No correlation was determined between systolic and diastolic blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, or blood lipid levels and intraocular pressure and ocular pulse amplitude.
Conclusion: Our results show that obesity caused an increase in intraocular pressure and a decrease in ocular pulse amplitude independently of insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Prospective studies involving long-term follow-up of cases are now needed to assess the probable adverse effects of these ocular findings in obese children.
Keywords: Tonometry; ocular; Intraocular pressure; Obesity; Child; Adolescent.
Bacterial keratitis caused by multidrug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a therapeutic challenge due to a limited number of active antimicrobials and rapid progression to corneal necrosis and perforation. To report the use of topical colistin and surgical tarsorrhaphy in a case of keratitis caused by extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. A 56-year-old male was admitted to the intensive care unit with clinical symptoms of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. During his stay in the unit, he developed rapidly progressive keratitis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to all drugs except for colistin on culture. Due to incomplete lid closure, a temporary tarsorrhaphy was performed, and a regimen of descending-dose topical colistin was initiated. After five weeks, keratitis resolved completely. Extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an unusual cause of bacterial keratitis. We describe the safe and effective use of topical colistin in a case with severe corneal involvement.
Keywords: Keratitis; Eye infection; bacterial; Drug resistance; Pseudomonas infection; Colistin; Genes MDR; COVID-19.
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of intravitreal bevacizumab injections following a single dexamethasone implant in the treatment of macular edema secondary to branch and central retinal vein occlusion.
Methods: This was a prospective interventional non-comparative study, 44 eyes of patients with naïve macular edema related to branch and central retinal vein occlusion were treated with a dexamethasone implant. Patients were followed-up at four-week intervals from the second to the sixth month. If persistent or recurrent macular edema occurred during this period, the patient was treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections on an as-needed basis. The outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness changes.
Results: The mean best-corrected visual acuity changed from 0.97 ± 0.33 LogMAR at baseline to 0.54 ± 0.40 at the six-month post-implant examination (p<0.00001). Improvement ≥3 Snellen lines were seen in 20 eyes (45.54%). The mean central macular thickness at baseline was 670.25 ± 209.9 microns. This had decreased to 317.43 ± 112.68 microns at the six-month follow-up (p<0.00001). The mean number of intravitreal bevacizumab injections received in the six months post-implant was 2.32. The mean time from dexamethasone implant to first anti-VEGF injection was 3.45 months.
Conclusions: Intravitreal bevacizumab injections following a single dexamethasone implant were found to improve best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness in patients with macular edema due to branch and central retinal vein occlusion at six months, with few intravitreal injections required.
Keywords: Retinal vein occlusion/complications; Macular edema/drug therapy; Angiogenesis inhibitors/ therapeutic use; Dexamethasone/ administration & dosage; Intravitreal Injections; Bevacizumab; Tomography; optical coherence; Visual acuity.
Purpose: To evaluate the profile of emergency eye-related visits at a reference eye hospital in Sao Paulo during the first months of the quarantine due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and to compare it with that in the same period of the previous year.
Methods: Data were obtained from the emergency department of Ophthal Hospital Especializado, Sao Paulo, Brazil. All the cases registered between March 23 and May 19, 2020, were included in the study as Group 2020. The cases registered between March 23 and May 19, 2019, were included in the study as Group 2019. Frequency tables were used for the descriptive analyses. The chi-square and Fisher exact tests were applied to compare categorical variables between the groups.
Results: We observe a decrease of 46.15% in the number of cases during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 compared with the same period in 2019. We observed a significant increase in the incidence rates of the following pathologies in 2020 compared with 2019: eyelid disorders (12.3%), corneal disorders (97.1%), retinal pathologies (173.1%), refraction (62.9%), glaucoma (acute and chronic; 43.9%), scleral alterations (68.8%), trauma (39.3%), herpes (54.7%), and cataracts (549.9%). On the other hand, the incidence rates of the following disorders decreased: conjunctivitis (-33.4%), disorders of lacrimal system (-81.0%), iridocyclitis (-39.9%), and postoperative visits (-80.1%).
Conclusion: During the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, we observed a drastic decrease in the number of patients who visited the emergency eye service. The main reasons for visiting were also changed, with higher frequencies of high-severity cases such as retina disturbances, cornea disturbances, glaucoma, and trauma and lower frequencies of transmittable conditions such as conjunctivitis.
Keywords: COVID-19; Emergencies; Social Isolation; Ophthalmology; Quarantine.
Purpose: To compare viscotrabeculotomy with anterior chamber irrigation to Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for secondary glaucoma following silicone oil removal.
Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 43 vitrectomized pseudophakic eyes with persistent glaucoma after silicone oil removal. Patients were randomized to either viscotrabeculotomy with anterior chamber irrigation or Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. All patients were examined on day 1, week 1, and months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 postoperatively. Postoperative complications were noted. Success was defined as an intraocular pressure between 6 and 20 mmHg and with an intraocular pressure reduction of >30% compared with the preoperative intraocular pressure.
Results: There were 22 eyes in the viscotrabeculotomy with anterior chamber irrigation and 21 eyes in the Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation group. The mean preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure in the viscotrabeculotomy with anterior chamber irrigation and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation groups were 35.5 ± 2.6 mmHg and 35.5 ± 2.4 mmHg and 16.9 ± 0.7 mmHg and 17.9 ± 0.9 mmHg respectively (p˂0.0001). There was a statistically significant intraocular pressure reduction at all follow-up time points compared to preoperative values (p˂0.0001) in both groups. The unqualified success rate in the viscotrabeculotomy with anterior chamber irrigation and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation groups were 72.73% and 61.9%, respectively. A minimal self-limited hyphema was the most common complication.
Conclusions: Both viscotrabeculotomy with anterior chamber irrigation and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation are effective in lowering the intraocular pressure in glaucoma after silicone oil removal with viscotrabeculotomy with anterior chamber irrigation providing greater reduction, higher success rates, and minimal complications.
Keywords: Glaucoma drainage; implant; Glaucoma; Retinal detachment; Silicone oil; Trabeculectomy; Intravitreal Injection; Intraocular pressure; Postoperative complication; Ophthalmic solution; Dexamethasone; Ofloxacin.
Purpose: To compare ocular surface parameters in rosacea patients with those of controls.
Methods: Ninety-three participants took part in this cross-sectional, observational, non-interventional study. These consisted of a rosacea group (n=40) and a control group (n=53). We compared objective parameters of the ocular surface, including conjunctival hyperemia, tear film stability and volume, meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye disease, and ocular surface staining, between the two groups.
Results: In the rosacea group, 69.23% were female. The mean age was 47.34 ± 12.62 years old. No statistically significant differences between groups were found in visual acuity (p=0.987), tear film parameters (tear meniscus height (p=0.338), noninvasive tear film rupture time (p=0.228), invasive rupture time (p=0.471), Schirmer’s test scores (p=0.244), conjunctival hyperemia (p=0.106), and fluorescein staining (p=0.489). Significant differences were found in meibography evaluations (p=0.026), mucous layer integrity (p=0.015), and ocular surface symptoms (p<0.0001). Rosacea patients also showed important eyelid differences in glandular expressibility (p<0.001), glandular secretion pattern (p<0.001), and telangiectasia (p<0.001) compared to controls.
Conclusion: Meibomian gland dysfunction is frequently associated with dermatological conditions. It can be observed in morphological findings from meibography as well as lipid secretion impairment, leading to evaporative dry eye, ocular surface dysfunction, and inflammation.
Keywords: Rosacea/complications; Meibomian gland dysfunction; Conjunctiva; Dry eye syndromes; Diagnostic techniques; ophthalmological.
Purpose: The nasal sector of the anterior chamber angle may present a higher density of collector channels, which may influence the results of angle surgeries. Considering the anatomical differences in the anterior chamber angle, we compared the results of the nasal and temporal 180° selective laser trabeculoplasty approaches for open-angle glaucoma.
Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients with open-angle glaucoma (primary, pseudoexfoliation, and pigmentary) who underwent at least one 180° selective laser trabeculoplasty session between December 2016 and October 2018. The nasal (N1) or temporal (T1) sectors were chosen at the physician’s discretion. Patients who did not experience decreased intraocular pressure between 3 and 6 months again underwent 180° selective laser trabeculoplasty in the opposite angle sector (T2 and N2). The main outcome measured was decrease in intraocular pressure at 6-month follow-up, after the last selective laser trabeculoplasty. A multivariable regression analysis was used to evaluate factors associated with decreased intraocular pressure after treatment.
Results: The procedure was performed initially in 45 eyes (N1, 25; T1, 20 eyes) and repeated in the opposite anterior chamber angle sector in 19 eyes (N2, 11; T2, 8 eyes). Analysis of variance revealed that only the N1 approach presented a significant difference in the decrease in intraocular pressure as compared with the T1, N2, and T2 approaches (p=0.0014). The baseline intraocular pressure (p=0.021) and anterior chamber angle sector (N1; p=0.044) correlated with decreased intraocular pressure.
Conclusion: Compared with the temporal approach, 180° selective laser trabeculoplasty performed initially in the nasal sector was associated with a more significant decrease in intraocular pressure. Considering the sectorial differences in the anterior chamber angle, further prospective trials are warranted to confirm our findings and provide more-efficient selective laser trabeculoplasty protocols.
Keywords: Glaucoma; open-angle; Laser therapy/methods; Intraocular pressure; Trabeculectomy/methods.
Purpose: To evaluate primary intraocular lens implantation in the treatment of children’s aphakia in the Brazilian public health system and compare the outcomes among different age groups.
Methods: Children aged 0-12 years old with unilateral or bilateral congenital/developmental cataracts and underwent primary intraocular lens implantation were included.
Results: A total of 108 eyes from 68 children were evaluated, and the children were divided into four age groups (<7 months [mo]; 7 mo-2 years old [y/o]; 2-5 y/o, and >5 y/o) were evaluated. Nineteen eyes (17.59%) presented visual axis opacification as a postoperative complication, which was more frequently observed in the <7 mo age group (37.93%). The difference was significant between the <7 mo and >5 y/o age groups (p=0.002). Visual axis opacification was divided into two categories: pupillary membrane and lens cell proliferation. Eight eyes presented pupillary membrane, whereas 14 showed lens cell proliferation. Out of eight eyes with pupillary membrane, seven occurred in the <7 mo age group. The difference between the <7 mo age group and the 2-5 y/o or >5 y/o age group was significant (p=0.01). Lens cell proliferation was more frequent in the <7 mo and 2-5 y/o age groups, but the difference was significant only between the < 7 mo age group and >5 y/o age group (p=0.040). Glaucoma and glaucoma suspect cases were not observed during the follow-up period.
Conclusions: The main complication found in the study was visual axis opacification, which had a higher incidence in children operated on or before the age of 7 months.
Keywords: Cataract extraction; Intraocular lens; Intraoperative complications; Glaucoma; Anterior eye segment; Child.
Iridociliary ring melanoma is an uncommon type of uveal melanoma. Clinical manifestation varies from asymptomatic cases to masquerade syndromes mimicking refractory glaucoma. Treatment options include radiotherapy and enucleation. Management of metastatic uveal melanoma remains discouraging. Novel therapies using immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently under study. We present a case of a 54-year-old Hispanic woman with progressive vision loss due to metastatic ring melanoma with anterior chamber seeding treated with pembrolizumab.
Keywords: Uveal neoplasms/complication; Melanoma; Iris neoplasm/secondary; Ciliary body; Antibody; monoclonal; humanized; Immune checkpoint inhibitor; Humans; Case report.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Its main form of transmission is through respiratory droplets. Case reports have described the presence of this virus in biological materials such as blood, feces, urine, and tears, which generate hypotheses about other means thereby the disease is transmitted. In this report, we describe a case of SARS-CoV-2 identified on the eye surface of an asymptomatic health-care professional. The nasopharyngeal reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test, using a sample collected on the same day, and the serological test, performed 3 months later, did not reveal any evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results alert on the possibility of a false-positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction result for the ocular surface or the presence of the virus in the conjunctival mucosa in individuals without infection.
Keywords: Coronavirus infection; COVID-19; Eye Infection; viral; SARS-CoV-2; Health professional.
Lymphatic malformation is a rare orbital tumor that used to be treated surgically, with high complication rates, or recently with intralesional bleomycin injection. We report for the first time the histopathological changes of eyelid lymphatic malformation after water-soluble intralesional bleomycin injection in a 20-year-old woman who had unsuccessful orbital surgical debulking during childhood. The changes confirmed the assumption of fibrosis induced by intralesional bleomycin injection. The minimal bleeding during surgical intervention made it much easier than the usual lymphatic malformation bloody procedure, without postoperative recurrences and with favorable aesthetic outcomes.
Keywords: Lymphangioma; Bleomycin; Lymphatic abnormality.
Cycloplegia is crucial for reliable pediatric ophthalmology examinations. This document provides a recommendation for pediatric cycloplegia and mydriasis for Brazilian ophthalmologists. This article was developed based on literature reviews; the clinical experience of Brazilian specialists, as obtained through questionnaires; and the consensus of the Expert Committee of the Brazilian Pediatric Ophthalmology Society. According to the best evidence and formulations available in Brazil, this committee recommends the use of one drop of 1% cyclopentolate plus one drop of 1% tropicamide in children older than 6 months and two drops of 1% tropicamide 0-5 minutes apart for those younger than 6 months. Mydriasis may be increased by a single drop of 2.5% phenylephrine. For retinopathy of prematurity screening, the recommendation is 0.5% or 1% tropicamide, administered two or three times, 5 minutes apart, and 2.5% phenylephrine, used preferably once. In all scenarios, we recommend the use of a prior drop of 0.5% proxymetacaine.
Keywords: Mydriatics; Refraction; ocular; Infant; newborn; Child; diagnostic techniques; ophthalmological.
Purpose: To investigate the antibiotic susceptibility as well as the clinical, epidemiological, and microbiological profiles of microbial keratitis.
Methods: This was a longitudinal retrospective study, and we retrospectively reviewed medical and laboratory records from 2015 to 2019.
Results: In total, 380 pathogens (321 bacteria and 59 fungi) were isolated from the corneas of 352 patients. Staphylococcus species (45%) were most abundant within the organisms that were isolated, followed by Pseudomonas (18.4%), fungi (15.5%), Streptococcus (7.9%), and Serratia species (3.2%). The isolated gram-positive bacteria were not resistant to amikacin or vancomycin, although 14.8% of the gram-positive isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (p<0.05). All the gram-negative isolates were susceptible to amikacin. Male patients represented 62.8% of the 129 cases with accessible clinical data. The mean age of the patients was 53.17 ± 21 years. The time to presentation (from onset of symptoms) was 14.9 ± 19.4 days (median: 7 days). Large ulcers (>5 mm in any dimension) were present in 49.6% (64 eyes) of the cases. The duration of treatment was 49 ± 45.9 days (median: 38 days). Direct ocular trauma was reported by 48 (37.2%) patients, and 15 patients (11.6%) reported using contact lenses. For 72 (55.8%) patients, topical treatment had been previously prescribed, and 16 (12.4%) patients reported using other classes of drugs. Hospitalizations were required for 79 (61.2%) patients, and in terms of major complications, 53 (41.1%) patients had corneal perforations. A total of 40 patients (31%) underwent tectonic penetrating keratoplasty, and 28 (21.7%) developed secondary glaucoma. A progression to endophthalmitis occurred in 8 (6.2%) patients, with 50% of those patients’ (3.1% of the total) endophthalmitis evolving to evisceration. The patients’ microbial keratitis was largely treated empirically, with 94 (72.9%) patients prescribed moxifloxacin and 56 (43.4%) prescribed ciprofloxacin before receiving their culture results.
Conclusions: For the most part, our hospital treated patients with severe microbial keratitis. Despite identifying gram-positive bacteria in most of the isolates, we also frequently identified gram-negative rods and fungi. Our susceptibility results support prescribing a combination of vancomycin and amikacin as an effective empirical therapeutic regimen to treat microbial keratitis.
Keywords: Keratitis; Eye infections; bacterial; Anti-bacterial agents.
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of soft HydroCone silicone hydrogel contact lenses in patients with posterior microphthalmos.
Methods: The charts of 13 patients with posterior microphthalmos (26 eyes) who were fitted with soft HydroCone silicone hydrogel contact lenses were reviewed retrospectively. All the patients underwent assessments of uncorrected and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity and cycloplegic refraction. They were fitted with contact lenses according to the parameter values obtained from the topographical analysis and best contact lens-corrected visual acuity measurement.
Results: The spherical equivalents of the right and left eyes ranged from 10.00 to 19.25 diopters and from 11.00 to 21.5 diopters, respectively. The mean axial and posterior chamber lengths were shorter than those of the age-matched population. However, the mean values of the anterior segment parameters such as horizontal visible iris diameter, central anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and central corneal thickness were in the normal range. The mean keratometric measurements revealed increased corneal curvature compared with that in the normal population. The mean best contact lens-corrected visual acuity was significantly higher than the mean best spectacle-corrected visual acuity for both eyes (p=0.045).
Conclusion: HydroCone silicon soft contact lenses provided better visual acuity than spectacles in the patients with posterior microphthalmos in this study.
Keywords: Microphthalmos; Contact lens; hydrophilic; Silicone; Vision disorder/rehabilitation; Visual acuity.
Purpose: To present the results of a retrospective study regarding the clinical and economic impact of intracameral cefuroxime administration to prevent endophthalmitis during cataract surgery in a referral hospital.
Methods: This study included 16,902 eyes from patients who had undergone cataract surgery between 2013 and 2017. From May 2014 onwards, all patients received routine intracameral injections of 1 mg cefuroxime (10 mg/1 mL) after phacoemulsification. The prophylactic efficacy was evaluated using the relative risk ratio, whereas the economic impact was evaluated using number needed to treat to avoid endophthalmitis.
Results: Before introducing cefuroxime, 3,407 cataract surgeries were performed using the phacoemulsification technique, and 7 post-operatory cases of endophthalmitis occurred (0.2% incidence). After introducing the cefuroxime protocol, 13,495 surgeries were performed, and 4 endophthalmitis cases were registered (0.03% incidence). Cefuroxime was identified as a protective factor against the development of endophthalmitis [risk ratio = 14%, p=0.002, 95% confidence interval (CI) 95%, 4%-49%], with an economic impact of number needed to treat = 568. The potential savings with cefuroxime was approximately US $2,334.36 for every 568 patients treated.
Conclusion: The incidence of endophthalmitis decreased by 86% (risk ratio = 14%, p=0.002, 95% CI, 4%-49%) after introducing intracameral cefuroxime prophylaxis at the study hospital. The results presented herein provide strong evidence for the use of cefuroxime in endophthalmitis prophylaxis after phacoemulsification surgeries, outperforming the alternative by providing both economic and clinical benefits.
Keywords: Cataract extraction; Endophthalmitis; Cefuroxime; Antibiotic prophylaxis; Cost-effectiveness evaluation.
Purpose: This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty in contralateral eyes of the same patients.
Methods: In this retrospective, comparative case series, clinical outcome data included best-corrected visual acuity, refractive spherical equivalent, refractive astigmatism, endothelial cell density, endothelial cell loss, central corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure, which were evaluated at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty. Additionally, complications were assessed.
Results: Fifty-two eyes (26 patients) were included, of which 19 patients had keratoconus, 6 had stromal dystrophy, and 1 had post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis ectasia. The mean follow-up was 44.1 ± 10.5 months in the deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty Group and 47.9 ± 11.9 months in the penetrating keratoplasty Group. No significant differences were observed in the mean best-corrected visual acuity, refractive spherical equivalent, refractive astigmatism, and central corneal thickness between the deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty Groups during follow-up. The endothelial cell density was significantly higher in the deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty Group than in the penetrating keratoplasty Group at 24 and 36 months postoperatively (p=0.022 and 0.013, respectively). Endothelial cell loss was significantly lower in the deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty Group than in the penetrating keratoplasty Group at 24 and 36 months postoperatively (p=0.025 and 0.001, respectively). Intraocular pressure was significantly lower in the deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty Group than in the penetrating keratoplasty Grroup at 6 months postoperatively (p=0.015). Microperforation occurred in 4 eyes (15%) during deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty surgery; however, penetrating keratoplasty was not required. No endothelial rejection occurred in the penetrating keratoplasty Group during follow-up.
Conclusions: Over the 3-year follow-up, endothelial cell loss and intraocular pressure in the deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty Group were significantly lower than those in the penetrating keratoplasty Group, while visual and refractive results were similar.
Keywords: Corneal diseases/surgery; Keratoconus/surgery; Keratoplasty; penetrating/methods; Corneal transplantation/methods; Intraocular pressure; Comparative study.
Purpose: To evaluate visual outcomes, satisfaction, and quality of life of patients assisted in a Medical School hospital by the Brazilian Public Health System, who underwent bilateral diffractive multifocal intraocular lens implantation.
Methods: Case series study with intervention, including 20 patients who underwent bilateral implantation of multifocal IOL EyeDiff® (Eyeol UK, Dunstable, UK). Exclusion criteria were corneal astigmatism >1.5 cylindrical diopters, previous ocular surgery or ocular disease, and intra- or postoperative complications. Patients were evaluated one, three, and six months after surgery. Monocular and binocular visual acuity for distance, intermediate and near, under photopic and mesopic conditions, monocular contrast sensitivity under photopic conditions, defocus curve, and quality of life were assessed.
Results: Monocular distance-corrected visual acuity was 0.3 logMAR or better and monocular distance-corrected near visual acuity was J3 or better in all eyes under photopic conditions. Binocular distance-corrected near visual acuity was J1 in all cases. Contrast sensitivity was at the minimum level of normality for low and high spatial frequencies and within normal limits for intermediate spatial frequency. The quality of life questionnaire showed a high level of patient satisfaction.
Conclusion: Bilateral implantation of the multifocal intraocular lens EyeDiff® provides patients with good visual acuity and quality of life, besides spectacle independence. The visual acuity and contrast sensitivity progressively improved between one and six postoperative months.
Keywords: Visual acuity; Quality of life; Patient satisfaction; Lens implantation; intraocular; Unified Health System.
Purpose: To examine the efficacy of phototherapeutic keratectomy as a treatment for variable pathologies with anterior corneal opacities and evaluate the distribution of phototherapeutic keratectomy indications over the past 10 years.
Methods: The records of 334 eyes from 276 patients who underwent phototherapeutic keratectomy between March 2010 and 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Etiologies of the patients who underwent phototherapeutic keratectomy were noted, and their changes were examined. Refractive and visual acuity results before and after the operation were recorded and analyzed according to etiology.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 40.7 ± 16.2 years (range: 19-84). The mean follow-up was 25.5 ± 19.1 months (range: 3-96). Phototherapeutic keratectomy was most frequently applied for corneal stromal dystrophies (44%, 151 eyes from 111 patients), and granular dystrophy was the most common phototherapeutic keratectomy indication among corneal dystrophies. Unlike other indications, there has been an increase in the application of phototherapeutic keratectomy for persistent subepithelial opacities due to adenoviral conjunctivitis in the past 10 years. There was a significant increase in visual acuity in all groups except for the recurrent epithelial defect group (p<0.05). The greatest improvement in visual acuity was detected for stromal dystrophies in the granular dystrophy subgroup.
Conclusion: Despite changing indication trends, phototherapeutic keratectomy remains an effective and reliable treatment for anterior corneal lesions.
Keywords: Photorefractive keratectomy; Corneal opacity; Corneal injuries; Corneal dystrophies; Phototherapy.
Purpose: To compare the radiologic and clinical features of primary lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed imaging findings and medical records of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Results: Eleven patients with pleomorphic adenoma and 16 patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma were evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups regarding age or sex. Proptosis was the most common presenting symptom in both groups. Adenoid cystic carcinomas were more likely to present with a palpable mass, diplopia, pain, and sensory loss than pleomorphic adenomas, although the differences were not statistically significant between groups. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in terms of homogeneity and globe indentation between lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma on computed tomography (CT)(all p>0.05). The rates of bone invasion, tumor calcification, and wedge sign were significantly higher in adenoid cystic carcinomas, and bone remodeling was statistically significantly higher in pleomorphic adenomas, on CT(all p<0.05). Pleomorphic adenomas were significantly more likely to show well-defined margins, lobulated contours, heterogeneous contrast enhancement, and hyperintensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (all p<0.05).
Conclusion: When differentiating between lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma, evaluation of radiologic features along with clinical features is of great importance. Lobulated contours may be a significant distinguishing radiologic feature suggesting pleomorphic adenoma.
Keywords: Lacrimal apparatus/pathology; Adenoma; pleomorphic; Carcinoma; adenoid cystic; Computed tomography; x-ray; Magnetic resonance imaging.
Purpose: To compare strip meniscometry and Schirmer tear test 1 results and tear film breakup time between dogs with normal eyes and dogs diagnosed with keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
Methods: One-hundred fifty-six eyes of 78 dogs, 88 normal eyes, and 68 eyes diagnosed with keratoconjunctivitis sicca were included in the study. The tests were performed in the following sequence: Schirmer tear test 1 was used to allocate the dogs to the normal or keratoconjunctivitis sicca group, followed by the strip meniscometry test and tear film breakup time measurement.
Results: The results (mean ± standard deviation) of the tests in the normal group were as follows: Schirmer tear test 1, 22.75 ± 3.88 mm/min; strip meniscometry test, 10.01 ± 2.35 mm/5 sec; and tear film breakup time, 25.82 ± 5.47 sec. In the keratoconjunctivitis sicca group, the results were as follows: Schirmer tear test 1, 6.10 ± 4.44 mm/min; strip meniscometry test, 3.03 ± 2.62 mm/5 sec; and tear film breakup time, 10.78 ± 4.23 sec. The Spearman correlation coefficient in the keratoconjunctivitis sicca group was very high, with a significant difference between the strip meniscometry test and Schirmer tear test 1 (r=0.848, p<0.001), and moderate and significant between the strip meniscometry test and tear film breakup time (r=0.773, p<0.001). The cutoff for the strip meniscometry test for keratoconjunctivitis sicca was 7.0 mm/5 sec. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca was suspected when the values were <10 mm/5 sec.
Conclusions: This study provided strip meniscometry test values from dogs with normal eyes and eyes with keratoconjunctivitis sicca, with high sensitivity and specificity compared with those of the Schirmer tear test 1. In the future, the strip meniscometry test may be another important quantitative test and could complement the gold standard Schirmer tear test for the diagnosis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs, an excellent animal model for the study of the disease.
Keywords: Keratoconjunctivitis sicca; Schirmer tear test; Strip meniscometry test; Tear film breakup time; Dogs.
Purpose: This study aimed to use computational models for simulating the movement of respiratory droplets when assessing the efficacy of standard slit-lamp shield versus a new shield designed for increased clinician comfort as well as adequate protection.
Methods: Simulations were performed using the commercial software Star-CCM+. Respiratory droplets were assumed to be 100% water in volume fraction with particle diameter distribution represented by a geometric mean of 74.4 (±1.5 standard deviation) μm over a 4-min duration. The total mass of respiratory droplets expelled from patients’ mouths and droplet accumulation on the manikin were measured under the following three conditions: with no slit-lamp shield, using the standard slit-lamp shield, and using our new proposed shield.
Results: The total accumulated water droplet mass (kilogram) and percentage of expelled mass accumulated on the shield under the three aforementioned conditions were as follows: 5.84e-10 kg (28% of the total weight of particle emitted that settled on the manikin), 9.14e-13 kg (0.045%), and 3.19e-13 (0.015%), respectively. The standard shield could shield off 99.83% of the particles that would otherwise be deposited on the manikin, which is comparable to 99.95% for the proposed design.
Conclusion: Slit-lamp shields are effective infection control tools against respiratory droplets. The proposed shield showed comparable effectiveness compared with conventional slit-lamp shields, but with potentially enhanced ergonomics for ophthalmologists during slit-lamp examinations.
Keywords: Ophthalmologi sts; Coronavirus infections/prevention & control;Pandemics; Lipid droplets; SARS-CoV-2; Slit-lamp; Computer simulation; Protectivedevices; Equipment design.
We report a case of acute corneal hydrops followed by corneal perforation five years after corneal cross-linking for keratoconus. A healthy 24-year-old female patient underwent Dresden protocol cross-linking in her left eye due to advanced keratoconus. After five years of a stable cornea, she returned with epiphora, blurred vision, and a soft left eye. Acute hydrops and corneal perforation were diagnosed. There was no history of pregnancy, atopy, eye rubbing, trauma, or contact lens use. Local antibiotic and eye patching were applied. Three months after the resolution of the acute episode, she retained useful visual acuity with no need for further surgery. Although cross-linking efficiently halts keratoconus, progression can occur, leading to corneal hydrops and perforation, even in the absence of any risk factors.
Keywords: Corneal injury; Corneal perforation; Keratoconus; Hydrops.
A 38-year-old patient who developed aphakia and aniridia secondary to trauma suffered from vision loss. To improve her vision, an iris-intraocular lens complex (Reper®) was fixed to the sclera with Canabrava’s double-flanged technique. There was a satisfactory increase in the patient’s visual acuity and no complications were observed during the 6-months follow-up. Canabrava technique simplifies and improves the fixation of the iris-intraocular lens complex to the sclera. It is a safe option that does not require scleral flaps or knots.
Keywords: Aphakia; Aniridia; Lens implantation; intraocular lenses; Scleral surgery; Visual acuity; Humans; Case reports.
We report a case of a young woman presenting with decreased vision in the right eye. One month earlier, she developed severe preeclampsia at 22 weeks of gestation and the pregnancy was terminated. Fundus examination revealed cotton wool spots and hard exudates in the macula bilaterally, with a yellow spot at the center of the fovea in the right eye. Optic coherence tomography showed a full thickness macular hole with elevated cystoid edges in the right eye. The patient was diagnosed with macular hole secondary to preeclampsia and followed up for spontaneous closure. One month after the first visit, surgical intervention was suggested due to declining vision. Three months later, the patient agreed to surgery. She underwent pars plana vitrectomy with a temporal inverted internal limiting membrane flap and C3F8 endotamponade, which provided anatomic and visual improvement.
Keywords: Retinal perforations; Vitrectomy; Vitreoretinal surgery; Pre-eclampsia; Tomography; optical coherence.
Ocular sporotrichosis involving adnexa can present in 4 types: granulomatous conjunctivitis, dacryocystitis, Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome, and bulbar conjunctivitis. The incidence of ocular sporotrichosis has increased in regions with high incidence rates of sporotrichosis. We present a series of three cases of ocular involvement by the fungus Sporothrix species, including its manifestations, approaches, and relevance in areas where sporotrichosis has considerable incidence rates.
Keywords: Eye infections; fungal; Conjunctivitis; Sporotrichosis/drug therapy; Sporothrix/isolation & purification; Itraconazole/therapeutic use.
Purpose: Peribulbar injection of triamcinolone is an alternative treatment for thyroid eye disease; however the safety profile of this therapeutic option remains controversial. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of local and systemic adverse effects after peribulbar injection of triamcinolone in patients with thyroid eye disease.
Methods: This was a retrospective case series. Medical records of patients with thyroid eye disease treated with peribulbar injections of triamcinolone at a single academic institution between 2007 and 2019 were analyzed. Local and systemic complications were documented.
Results: A total of 123 patients were treated. Only 11 patients (8.9%) developed local complications. The most frequent complication was the presence of superficial eyelid ecchymosis (nine patients; 7.3%). Notably, systemic complications (hyperglycemic and suprarenal inhibition after stop treatment) occurred in two patients (1.6%). All complications were transient, and the patients did not have any long-term sequelae.
Conclusions: Peribulbar injection of triamcinolone for the treatment of thyroid eye disease is linked to a very low rate of local or systemic complications. Prospective studies are warranted to delve into this topic.
Keywords: Orbit/diagnostic imaging; Magnetic resonance imaging; Graves ophthalmopathy; Triamcinolone/adverse effects; Injections.
Purpose: The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and tissue response to a hollow polymethylmethacrylate orbital implant with a multiperforated posterior surface in an animal model after evisceration.
Methods: Sixteen New Zealand rabbits had their right eye eviscerated. All animals received a hollow polymethylmethacrylate implant 12 mm in diameter that is multiperforated in its posterior hemisphere. The animals were divided into four groups, and each one had the eye exenterated at 7, 30, 90, and 180 days post-evisceration. Clinical signs were assessed daily for 14 days post-evisceration and then every 7 days until 180 days. Inflammatory pattern, collagen structure, and degree of neovascularization generated with implant placement were analyzed with hematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius red, and immunohistochemistry staining.
Results: There were no signs of infection, conjunctival or scleral thinning, or implant exposure or extrusion in any animal during the study. On day 7, the new tissue migrated into the implant and formed a fibrovascular network through the posterior channels. Inflammatory response reduced over time, and no multinucleated giant cells were found at any time.
Conclusion: Hollow polymethylmethacrylate orbital implants with a multiperforated posterior surface enable rapid integration with orbital tissues by fibrovascular ingrowth. We believe that this orbital implant model can be used in research on humans.
Keywords: Orbital implants; Polymethylmethacrylate; Eye evisceration; Anophthalmos; Ophthalmological surgical procedures; Rabbits.
Purpose: The study aimed to investigate the correlation between arterial hemodynamics measured by color Doppler ultrasonography and retinal microarchitecture parameters determined by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.
Methods: This prospective study included 82 participants. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell inner plexiform layer, and ganglion cell complex values were measured. Ophthalmic artery and central retinal artery flows were evaluated with color Doppler ultrasonography, and resistivity index values were calculated.
Results: The study included 47 controls and 35 pseudoexfoliation glaucoma cases. In pseudoexfoliation glaucoma group, mean peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell complex thickness were statistically significantly lower in all quadrants compared to controls (p<0.001). Resistivity index values of the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries were significantly higher in pseudoexfoliation glaucoma group than in the controls (p<0.001 and r=0.684). Resistivity index values of the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries with ganglion cell complex thickness correlated significantly. On the other hand, no significant relationship for retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was identified.
Conclusions: Structural changes (ganglion cell complex and ganglion cell inner plexiform layer) in patients with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma and early glaucomatous loss showed a significant correlation with changes in ocular vascular hemodynamics. In cases where systemic vascular resistance is increased, ganglion cell complex and ganglion cell inner plexiform layer may not exactly reflect glaucoma state. In such cases, thickness changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer may give more realistic results regarding glaucoma. We have seen that pseudoexfoliation glaucoma-induced structural deterioration and increased resistance in ocular hemodynamics correlated with ganglion cell complex, but not retinal nerve fiber layer.
Keywords: Retinal artery; Tomography; optical coherence; Ophthalmic artery; Nerve fibers; Glaucoma; Ultrasonography; doppler; color; Vascular resistance; Hemodynamics; Retinal ganglion cells.
Purpose: The study aimed to describe anatomic and visual outcomes associated with perfluoropropane intravitreal injection followed by laser treatment for macular retinal detachment secondary to optic disc pit.
Methods: A single-center, retrospective study. Medical records of all patients treated at a tertiary retina referral center were evaluated between 2011 and 2018 for congenital optic disc pit-associated macular detachment with 0.3 ml 100% perfluoropropane intravitreal injection followed by retinal laser photocoagulation along the temporal optic disc margin as the initial treatment.
Results: Six patients with optic disc pit-associated macular detachment were identified, with postoperative follow-up ranging from 13 to 52 months (mean: 28 months). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed complete fluid resolution without recurrence in five of the six cases. Four cases showed complete reabsorption after Intravitreal perfluoropropane plus laser, one patient needed an extra procedure (pars plana vitrectomy with inner limiting membrane peeling and pedicle flap inversion over the temporal optic disc margin) to achieve complete fluid reabsorption, and one patient had persistent intraretinal fluid and denied additional surgeries. The time between the initial procedure and total fluid reabsorption varied from 6.5 to 41 months (mean: 19.5 months). Best-corrected visual acuity improved after surgery on the last follow-up visit in all cases.
Conclusion: 100% perfluoropropane intravitreal injection followed by photocoagulation along temporal optic disc margin was associated with anatomic and visual improvement in most cases, representing an alternative treatment approach for optic disc pit-associated macular detachment.
Keywords: Optic disk/abnormalities; Optic nerve diseases/complications; Retinal detachment; Laser therapy; Intravitreal injections; Fluorocarbons/administration & dosage; Gases/administration & dosage.
Purpose: This study aimed to describe the visits profile to Hospital São Paulo’s ophthalmology emergency department, a 24-hour public open-access tertiary-care service in São Paulo, Brazil, that belongs to Federal University of São Paulo, over the last 11 years.
Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted, including all patients (n=634,726) admitted to the ophthalmology emergency department of Hospital São Paulo between January 2009 and December 2019.
Results: From 2009 to 2019, the number of patients’ presentations increased to 39.2%, with considerable visits variation across the period. The median age was 38 ± 20.4 years. Males represented 53.3%, and single-visit patients represented 53.1%. A total of 79.5% of patients’ presentations occurred from 7 am to 5 pm, and 80.8% of patients’ presentations occurred during regular weekdays. The most frequent diagnoses were conjunctivitis, blepharitis, keratitis, hordeolum/chalazion, and corneal foreign body.
Conclusions: Over the study period, presentations significantly increased in number, with nonurgent visits predominance, and a low number of single-visit patients. Our results demonstrate the ophthalmic visits profile and can lead to changes in the public health system to improve the quality of care and ophthalmology emergency access in São Paulo city.
Keywords: Emergency service; hospital; Epidemiology; Eye injuries; Eye diseases.
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and selective serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors on the ocular surface.
Methods: The study included 330 eyes of 165 patients using antidepressants and 202 eyes of 101 controls. Tear fluid breakup time, Schirmer I test, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire were administered. Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were applied to record drug use, dosages, psychiatric disease duration, and remission time.
Results: Mean tear fluid breakup time was 14.29 ± 4.81 (4-26) sec, and Schirmer I test value was 16.05 ± 5.89 (2-28) mm in study group. Tear fluid breakup time was 18.16 ± 2.12 (15-24) sec and Schirmer I test value was 16.64 ± 2.31 (15-24) mm in control group (p<0.001 and p=0.005, respectively). In study group, 38.18% (n=63) of patients had dry eye, and 17% (n=18) of patients in control group had dry eye (p<0.001). The mean OSDI score was 82.56 ± 16.21 (66-100) in the tricyclic antidepressants Group, 60.02 ± 29.18 (10-100) in the serotonin reuptake inhibitors Group, and 22.30 ± 20.87 (0-75) in the serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors Group (p<0.001). Mean tear fluid breakup time was 14.36 ± 3.35 (10-20) sec in tricyclic antidepressants Group, 13.94 ± 5.81 (4-26) sec in the serotonin reuptake inhibitors Group, and 14.93 ± 4.20 (6-20) sec in serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors Group (p=0.730). The mean Schirmer I test value was 9.90 ± 7.22 (2-30) mm in tricyclic antidepressants Group, 15.55 ± 5.15 (2-25) mm in serotonin reuptake inhibitors Group and 17.71 ± 4.21 (10-30) mm in serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors Group (p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between OSDI score, tear fluid breakup time, and Schirmer I test values in serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors subgroups.
Conclusions: Dry eye is common in antidepressant users, but considering the ocular surface, serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors may be more reliable than other antidepressants. Patients using serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors have lower OSDI scores. Serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, which are useful in chronic pain syndromes, may also have a corrective effect on dry eye symptoms.
Keywords: Serotonin reuptake inhibitors; Antidepressive agents; tricyclic; Serotonin; Depression; Chronic pain; Dry eye syndromes; Norepinephrine; Surveys and questionnaires; Anxiety; Pharmaceutical preparations.
Purpose: The study aimed to evaluate the ocular surface and meibomian gland morphology in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) smokers.
Methods: The upper and lower eyelids of 25 male e-cigarette smokers and 25 healthy male non-smoker patients were evaluated using Sirius meibography. Meibomian glands loss was automatically calculated using Phoenix meibography imaging software module, with the result obtained as percentage loss. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, tear breakup time test, and Schirmer II test were administered and performed in all cases.
Results: The mean e-cigarette smoking duration was 4.9 ± 0.9 (range, 3.4-7) years. While the mean Schirmer II test value was 9.16 ± 2.09 mm in e-cigarette group, it was 11.20 ± 2.14 mm in control group (p=0.003). Mean tear breakup time was 6.96 ± 2.31 seconds in e-cigarette group and 9.84 ± 2.13 seconds in control group (p=0.002). The mean OSDI value was 28.60 ± 6.54 and 15.16 ± 7.23 in e-cigarette and control groups, respectively (p<0.001). In Sirius meibography, the average loss for the upper eyelid was 23.08% ± 6.55% in e-cigarette group and 17.60% ± 4.94% in control group (p=0.002), and the average loss for the lower eyelid was 27.84% ± 5.98% and 18.44% ± 5.91%, respectively (p<0.001). Additionally, a significant positive correlation was identified between the loss rates for both upper and lower eyelid meibography with e-cigarette smoking duration (r=0.348, p<0.013 and r=0.550, p<0.001, respectively).
Conclusion: Long-term e-cigarette smoking causes damage to the meibomian glands; therefore, meibomian gland damage should be considered in ocular surface disorders due to e-cigarette smoking.
Keywords: Electronic nicotine delivery systems; Meibomian glands; Meibomian gland dysfunction/diagnosis; Smoking/adverse effects; Vaping/adverse effects; Diagnostic techniques; ophthalmological.
Purpose: Postoperative refraction in modern microincision cataract surgery gained extra importance in patients with the previous laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery. The surgically induced astigmatic changes in those eyes may differ not only in magnitude but also in direction compared to virgin corneas. This study aimed to compare the surgically induced astigmatic changes after microscopic cataract surgery between post-LASIK corneas and virgin eyes.
Methods: Cases that underwent microincision cataract surgery in eyes with and without previous LASIK surgery were reviewed. The demographics, the axial length at cataract surgery, the central corneal thickness, spheric and cylindric values, keratometry readings, and postoperative posterior corneal astigmatism were retrospectively evaluated. A modified Alpins method was used for astigmatic vector analysis, and baseline astigmatism, surgically induced astigmatism, difference vector, flattening effect, and torque were assessed.
Results: A total of 42 eyes from 24 subjects was evaluated. Group I consisted of 14 eyes with the previous LASIK, and Group II included 28 eyes without any refractive surgery. Preoperative mean central corneal thickness in Group I was significantly thinner (p=0.012). There was no significant difference in baseline astigmatism between the groups regarding magnitude and power vectors. After microincision cataract surgery, there were no significant differences in mean spheric and cylindric values and mean keratometry readings (all p>0.05). However, surgically induced astigmatism and difference vector were significantly higher on J45 vector component in post-LASIK eyes and microincision cataract surgery steepening effect on post-LASIK corneas was significantly higher than those in virgin eyes (p=0.001, p=0.002 and p=0.018, respectively).
Conclusions: Cataract surgery has steepened the corneas in both groups with a significantly higher steepening effect in post-LASIK eyes. Certainly, corneal topography cataract surgery is particularly helpful to provide more precise surgically induced astigmatism interpretations.
Keywords: Cataract surgery; Keratomileusis; laser in situ; Refractive surgery; Surgically induced astigmatism; Vector analysis.
Purpose: Conjunctival melanoma is a rare and aggressive tumor with a propensity for regional and distant metastases. This study aimed to analyze BRAF/NRAS markers in conjunctival melanoma and their relationship with tumor recurrences and patient prognosis.
Methods: This retrospective, observational, single-center study included consecutive patients with an anatomopathological diagnosis of conjunctival melanoma, registered between January 1992 and December 2019. BRAF/NRAS mutations were analyzed using cobas®4800 kit (Roche®) in samples obtained by excisional or map biopsy. Additionally, the presence of other associated precancerous or tumor lesions was assessed.
Results: A total of 12 patients with positive histological samples for conjunctival melanoma were included (7 women, 5 men), with a mean age at diagnosis of 60 years and a mean evolution time of 6.38 ± 3.4 years. BRAF V600E mutation was observed in three biopsies (25%), similar to NRAS Q61X (25%). Recurrences occurred in all patients with positive BRAF or NRAS mutation, and five of these patients developed systemic dissemination (83.33%). Moreover, four of six patients with mutated BRAF or NRAS (66.66%) had histopathological findings of tumor or precancerous lesions.
Conclusions: BRAF and NRAS mutations may be risk factors for recurrence and shorter survival in conjunctival melanoma, which would make these patients candidates for targeted therapies and comprehensive and individualized follow-up. All these data warrant standardized prospective studies.
Keywords: Conjunctival neoplasms; Melanoma; Biomarkers; tumor; Proto-oncogene proteins B-raf; Genes ras.
It is estimated that lymphatic malformations in children account for 6% of all benign vascular malformations. New medical therapies have been developed for the management of lymphatic orbital disease. The purpose of this article was to describe a clinical case of orbital venolymphatic malformation in a 10-year-old boy, causing proptosis and palpebral edema. The lesion was initially treated with local sclerotherapy. However, the lesion relapsed, and was successfully treated with oral sirolimus. Prospective studies are warranted to determine the appropriate dose and extend the indications of sirolimus in these patients.
Keywords: Lymphatic abnormalities/drug therapy; Orbit/pathology; Exophthalmos; Magnetic resonance imaging; Sirolimus/therapeutic use; Child.
This is a case report involving a 56-year-old male patient with a history of pars plana vitrectomy due to a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the right eye that resulted in the implantation of a drainage device after the patient developed secondary glaucoma. Two years after the device’s implantation, the patient was referred to our care as his visual acuity had decreased to 20/200 (1.00 LogMAR). At the fundus evaluation, a choroidal amelanotic elevation was observed at the upper temporal equator, and a potential diagnosis was made of amelanotic choroidal melanoma. The ultrasound exam visualized the patient’s implanted superotemporal justabulbar drainage device, which revealed a transscleral communication from the plate fibrocapsular’s draining space to the suprachoroidal space (fistula). The ultrasound also revealed a focal pocket of choroidal detachment in the patient’s superotemporal region, simulating an amelanotic choroidal melanoma. A new pars plana vitrectomy was performed to remove the internal limiting membrane without repercussions at the fistula site. The patient’s recovery progressed well, and he regained a visual acuity of 20/70 (0.55 LogMAR). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of this condition.
Keywords: Vitrectomy/adverse effects; Retinal detachment; Glaucoma; Glaucoma drainage implants; Choroid neoplasms; Melanoma; Fluorescein angiography; Dexamethasone; Humans; Case report.
The authors report full-field electroretinogram and optical coherence tomography findings of intravitreal melphalan retinal toxicity. An 18-month-old girl with unilateral group D retinoblastoma was evaluated with light-adapted 3 full-field electroretinogram protocol and optical coherence tomography (I-Stand optical coherence tomography, Optovue) after treatment with intravitreal melphalan for active vitreous seeds. After the third injection, the child developed retinal pigment epithelial changes near the injection site. The photopic response of the full-field electroretinogram standard flash cones showed a decrease in amplitude responses of waves a and b in the affected eye compared to the contralateral eye. Optical coherence tomography showed loss of photoreceptors and outer nuclear layers in the affected eye. Melphalan toxicity is dose-dependent, and despite its treatment benefits, it can affect vision. Our case shows an updated, in-depth retinal toxicity assessment of intravitreal melphalan in the human retina with optical coherence tomography and its correlation with electroretinogram changes.
Keywords: Retinoblastoma; Drug-related side effects and adverse reactions; Intravitreal injections; Melphalan/ toxicity.
We describe a case of a 33-years-old woman who presents with severe acute bilateral visual loss secondary to massive exudative hypertensive maculopathy as the first sign of immunoglobulin A nephropathy. The patient’s ophthalmic examination showed bilateral cotton-wool spots, flame-shaped retinal hemorrhages, diffuse narrow arterioles, optic disk edema, and exudative maculopathy. Systemic workup demonstrated a systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 240 mmHg and 160 mmHg, respectively, proteinuria, and hematuria, suggesting kidney disease as the causative condition. A kidney biopsy confirmed immunoglobulin A nephropathy. She was treated with systemic corticosteroids, antihypertensive drugs, and a single bilateral intravitreal injection of aflibercept. There was a prompt resolution of macular edema and vision improvement. Our case draws attention to the fact that severe bilateral visual loss can be the first sign of severe hypertension. Secondary causes, such as immunoglobulin A nephropathy, should be ruled out.
Keywords: Berger’s disease; Glomerulonephritis; IGA; Hypertensive retinopathy; Tomography; optical coherence; Macular edema; Hypertension; malignant; Systemic arterial hypertension.
Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic began in March 2020 and changed the healthcare system overall. The pandemic led to resource allocation changes, overloading of intensive care units, apprehensiveness of patients to seek medical care not related to COVID-19, and an abrupt reduction in all nonurgent consultations and surgeries. This study evaluated the impact on an ophthalmological emergency room for one year by assessing the correlation between societal lockdown phases and COVID-19 mortality.
Methods: An observational, retrospective study was conducted that included all patients admitted to the Ophthalmology Emergency Department between January 1, 2019, and March 28, 2021. The visits were classified into prepandemic and pandemic groups that were then compared.
Results: In the prepandemic period, the hospital registered a total of 71,485 visits with a mean of 194.78 ± 49.74 daily visits. In the pandemic group, there was a total of 41,791 visits with a mean of 114.18 ± 43.12 daily visits, which was a 41.4% decrease. A significant decrease (16.4 p<0.001) was observed in the prevalence of acute conjunctivitis, and a significant increase (6.4%; p<0.01) was observed in the prevalence of corneal foreign body disorders. A negative correlation was identified between the COVID-19 death rate and the ophthalmological inflow rates.
Conclusion: This one-year analysis showed a reduction of 41.4% in emergency department visits and a significant decrease in infectious conditions. A change in hygiene habits and social distancing could explain this reduction, and the increased prevalence of trauma consultations highlighted the need for preventive and educative measures during these types of restrictive periods.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Coronavirus infections; Pandemics; Emergency medical services; Ocular trauma.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the white-to-white distance measurements of two devices (IOL Master 500 and Atlas corneal topographer) commonly used in clinical practice to determine if they were interchangeable. Providing information on instrument interchangeability could eliminate several unnecessary tests and consequently reduce the economic burden for the patient and society.
Methods: In this prospective, comparative case series, the white-to-white distance was measured by independent examiners using the Atlas topographer (Carl Zeiss Meditec) and the IOL Master 500 (Carl Zeiss Meditec). One eye each of 184 patients was tested. Statistical analyses were performed using a paired t-test, Pearson correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis to compare the measurement methods.
Results: The mean white-to-white distance measurements with the Atlas topographer and the IOL Master 500 were 12.20 ± 0.44 mm and 12.12 ± 0.41 mm, respectively (p<0.001). The mean white-to-white difference between the two devices was 0.07 mm (95% confidence interval of mean difference: 0.04-0.11 mm). The Pearson correlation coefficient between the two devices was 0.85 (p<0.0001). The 95% limits of agreement between the two devices were -0.38 mm to 0.53 mm.
Conclusions: The Atlas topographer and IOL Master 500 can be used interchangeably with respect to white-to-white distance measurements, as the range of differences is unlikely to affect clinical practice and decision making.
Keywords: Corneal topography; Axial length; eye; Diagnostic techniques; Ophthalmological; Ophthalmological surgical procedures.
Purpose: To evaluate the visual acuity of healthy and amblyopic children using sweep visual evoked potential and compare the results with those of Snellen visual acuity testing.
Methods: A total of 160 children aged 6-17 years were included in the study. Of these, 104 (65%) were aged 7-17 years old, able to verbally communicate, and did not have any systemic or ocular pathology (Group 1). Group 2 included 56 (35%) children aged 6-17 years, able to verbally communicate, and had strabismus or anisometropic amblyopia whose best corrected visual acuity was between 0.1 and 0.8. All subjects underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination and sweep visual evoked potential measurement. Demographic characteristics, ocular findings, best corrected visual acuity, and sweep visual evoked potential results were recorded.
Results: In Group 1, the mean and maximum visual acuity values for sweep visual evoked potential were lower than the Snellen best corrected visual acuity (p<0.001, for both, respectively). Bland-Altman analysis revealed that in Group 1, the distribution of the differences between the Snellen best corrected visual acuity and mean sweep visual evoked potential visual acuity was ±0.11 logMAR, and the distribution of the differences between the Snellen best corrected visual acuity and maximum sweep visual evoked potential visual acuity was ±0.023 logMAR. In Group 2, the mean and maximum sweep visual evoked potential visual acuity were lower than the Snellen best corrected visual acuity (p<0.001 and p=0.009, respectively). Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the distribution of the differences between the Snellen best corrected visual acuity and mean sweep visual evoked potential visual acuity was ±0.16 logMAR, and the distribution of the differences between the Snellen best corrected visual acuity and maximum sweep visual evoked potential visual acuity was ±0.19 logMAR.
Conclusions: Sweep visual evoked potential visual acuity measurements have comparable results with Snellen visual acuity measurements. This technique is an objective and reliable method for evaluating visual acuity in children.
Keywords: Amblyopia; Visual acuity; Visual evoked potentials; Vision tests; Humans; Child; Adolescent.
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the current practice patterns for assessing and managing upper lid ptosis among members of the Latin American and Spanish societies of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.
Methods: An e-mail was sent to invite members of both societies to participate in this anonymous web-based survey. The survey collected data on surgeons’ demographics and four other sections: upper lid ptosis preoperative evaluation, surgical preferences, postoperative management, and complications. The frequency and proportions of the responses were then statistically analyzed.
Results: The survey was responded by 354 experienced oculoplastic surgeons, 47.7% of whom generally performed more than 20 upper lid ptosis surgeries annually. Of those respondents, 244 (68.9%) routinely check for dry eye preoperatively. Less than half of the respondents (47.4%) perform the phenylephrine test for congenital or acquired ptosis. Mild upper lid ptosis was reported to be usually corrected with conjunctival mullerectomy (43.6%). Severe upper lid ptosis was reported to be usually corrected with frontalis surgery (57%), followed by anterior levator resection, mainly supramaximal resection (17.5%). In cases of severe congenital ptosis, the main reason for surgery was to alleviate the risk of amblyopia (37.3%). An anterior approach was reported to be usually (63.3%) used to manage involutional ptosis associated with dermatochalasis. Common complications comprised undercorrection after levator resection (40%) or frontalis suspension (27.5%).
Conclusions: This study reports the current practice patterns among Spanish and Latin American oculoplastic surgeons in upper lid ptosis diagnosis and treatment. Surgeons can use this study data to compare disease management with their colleagues.
Keywords: Blepharoptosis/diagnosis; Amblyopia; Phenylephrine; Surveys and Questionnaires; Demography; Surgeons.
Purpose: The study aimed to assess the anatomical and functional success rates of penetrating keratoplasty with temporary keratoprosthesis-assisted vitreoretinal surgery.
Methods: This retrospective study included 15 eyes of 14 patients, recording demographic characteristics, pre-operative anterior and posterior segment pathologies, intraoperative complications, postoperative graft status, retinal attachment, and complications and evaluating anatomical and functional success rates.
Results: The mean follow-up period was 29.8 ± 19.1(6-60) months. The most common pre-operative corneal pathology was graft abscess (7 eyes [46.7%]), and the most common diagnosis of the posterior segment was endophthalmitis (7 eyes [46.7%]). Five (33.3%) cases had visual acuity between 0.001-0.08. Pre-operative endophthalmitis was diagnosed in all five cases with anatomical failure.
Conclusion: Temporary keratoprosthesis-assisted vitreoretinal surgery with penetrating keratoplasty is an effective method to treat acute/subacute pathologies of the concomitant anterior and posterior segment. However, results may vary on a case-by-case basis. Pre-operative endophthalmitis is a poor prognostic factor for long-term success.
Keywords: Keratoplasty; penetrating; Vitreoretinal surgery; Vitrectomy;Anterior eye segment; Pre-operative period; Endophthalmitis.
Purpose: To determine whether the axial length is associated with the education level in elderly patients with cataracts who were not exposed to electronic devices in the first two decades of life.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in elderly patients with cataracts in Campinas, Brazil. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group 1 included those who completed, at most, elementary school (including the illiterate and those who partially or totally attended elementary school), which corresponded to 12 years of schooling; Group 2 included, at least, high school graduates (including those who completed high school and those who partially or fully attended university). The sample was selected randomly with stratification for sex and age. The main outcome was the axial length.
Results: The sample consisted of 472 elderly patients (236 per group) who underwent cataract surgery. There were 272 (57.6%) men and 200 (42.4%) women; the distribution was symmetrical between the two groups. The median age (IQR; range) was 66 (12; 50-89) years. The median axial length (IQR; range) was 22.82 (1.51; 20.34-28.71) mm in Group 1 and 23.32 (1.45; 20.51-31.34) mm in Group 2 (p<0.001).
Conclusion: A greater axial length was associated with a higher level of education in elderly patients with cataracts, suggesting that myopization is related to an increase in activities requiring near-vision even before exposure to electronic devices.
Keywords: Axial length; eye; Myopia; Biometry; Cataract; Educational status; Humans; Aged.
Purpose: To evaluate whether baseline spectral-domain optical coherence tomography characteristics of intraretinal cystoid spaces predict visual outcomes in patients receiving intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injection therapy (bevacizumab 1.25mg/0.05ml) for diabetic cystoid macular edema.
Methods: The relationship between the properties of the cystoid spaces before injection and anatomic and functional results after injection were investigated in patients who received three consecutive intravitreal bevacizumab injections for cystoid macular edema. The best-corrected visual acuity for functional success and central subfield thickness for anatomical success were evaluated. The relationship of the location of the cystoid spaces with the integrity of photoreceptors and inner retinal layers was also evaluated.
Results: In 36 eyes of 36 patients, the mean best-corrected visual acuity significantly improved (p=0.002), and mean central subfield thickness decreased after injections (p=0.003). The improvement in best-corrected visual acuity was limited in eyes with outer nuclear layer cysts (p=0.045). Intracystic reflectivity was higher in eyes that poor best-corrected visual acuity than in eyes with successful visual outcomes (p=0.028). The disrupted ellipsoid zone was present in 13 (59.0%) of 22 eyes with outer nuclear layer cysts, whereas in only 1 of 14 eyes (7.1%) without outer nuclear layer cysts (p=0.009). Disorganization of retinal inner layers was present in 15 of 22 (68.1%) eyes with outer nuclear layer cysts, whereas only 2 of 14 (14.2%) without outer nuclear layer cysts had disorganization of retinal inner layers (p=0.013).
Conclusion: Characteristics of intraretinal cystoid spaces may predict prognosis in patients with diabetic cystoid macular edema, and visual gain may be limited in the eyes with outer nuclear layer cysts.
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Diabetic retinopathy; Macular edema; Tomography; optical coherence; Intraretinal cystoid spaces; Visual acuity.
Purpose: To investigate subjective ocular symptoms and objectively measure tear secretion in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).
Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, 24 patients who had survived COVID-19 infection and 27 healthy controls were enrolled. Conjunctival impression cytology, the Schirmer test, tear-film break-up time, corneal staining scores were applied to all the participants.
Results: No significant difference was noted with regard to the gender and mean age between the two groups (p=0.484 and p=0.599, respectively). The conjunctival impression cytology analysis revealed that the density of the goblet cells was decreased, while the counts of lymphocytes and neutrophils were increased in the COVID-19 group patients when compared with ethe control group patients. When the Nelson classification was applied to the conjunctival impression cytology samples, 25% of the COVID-19 group patients and 14.8% of the control group patients exhibited changes consistent with ≥grade 2. The mean tear-film break-up time, Schirmer test, and corneal staining score results were determined to differ between the COVID-19 and control groups (p=0.02, p<0.001, and p=0.003, respectively).
Conclusions: The present study revealed the pathological conjunctival alterations of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, indicating the possibility of the occurrence of pathological ocular surface alterations to even at the end of COVID-19 infection, without the occurrence of any significant clinical ocular manifestations.
Keywords: Coronavirus infectious; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Ocular manifestations; Tears.
Purpose: Since particles are released in syringes during intravitreal injections, we assessed them quantitatively after agitating syringes commonly used for intravitreal injections.
Methods: With and without agitation, the SR 1-ml insulin, Becton-Dickinson Ultra-Fine 0.3-ml Short Needle with a half-unit scale, HSW Norm-Ject Tuberculin, and Becton-Dickinson 1-ml Luer Lok Tip were examined with buffer and bevacizumab, aflibercept, and ziv-aflibercept. Flow imaging microscopy was performed to assess the particle numbers, concentrations, morphology, and size distribution.
Results: Using the Becton-Dickinson Ultra-Fine syringe, the average particle count after agitation was higher than in the no-agitation group. For particles greater than 10 and 25 µm, differences were observed using the SR syringe between the two studied conditions. There were no significant differences in the means for the other syringes. Without agitation, the SR syringe had the highest number of particles (2,417,361.7 ± 3,421,575.5) followed by the Becton-Dickinson Ultra-Fine with 812.530,9 ± 996.187,2. The Becton-Dickinson Luer Lok Tip and HSW Norm-Ject performed equally with 398,396.8 ± 484,239.2 and 416,016.4 ± 242,650.1 particles, respectively.
Conclusions: Flicking syringes to eliminate air bubbles results in increased numbers of particles released during intravitreal injections into the human vitreous.
Keywords: Syringes; Intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab; Silicone oil.
Conjunctival leiomyosarcoma is a very rare soft tissue malignancy. Herein, we describe a conjunctival leiomyosarcoma case in a patient with another rare disease, xeroderma pigmentosum. The 27-year-old single-eyed xeroderma pigmentosum patient complained of exophytic mass covering the ocular surface in her left eye. A vascular, hemorrhagic mass covering the entire ocular surface of the left eye was identified on the examination. Thus, total mass excision surgery was performed. The pathological diagnosis was compatible with conjunctival leiomyosarcoma. Additional chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery were not accepted by the patient. No recurrence or metastasis was observed during the 5-year follow-up. Both primary conjunctival leiomyosarcoma and xeroderma pigmentosum are very rare diseases. Conjunctival masses in xeroderma pigmentosum patients should be approached carefully, and histopathological examination is warranted. For conjunctival leiomyosarcoma, early diagnosis, localized, unspread disease, and complete resection provide the best prognosis.
Keywords: Conjunctival neoplasms; Leiomyosarcoma; Xeroderma pigmentosum; Humans; Case report.
Antiphospholipid syndrome is an acquired autoimmune disease characterized by hypercoagulability associated with recurrent venous and arterial thromboembolism in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Herein, we report a case of rapid sequential retinal vein and artery occlusion as the first manifestation of a primary antiphospholipid syndrome triggered by an acute Mycoplasma infection in a previously healthy 11-year-old patient. On day 1, ophthalmoscopy revealed a central retinal vein occlusion. The patient developed temporal branch retinal artery occlusion the next day. On day 3, a central retinal artery occlusion was observed. Serum lupus anticoagulant, immunoglobulin (Ig) G anticardiolipin, IgG anti-β2-glycoprotein 1 antibody, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM antibody levels were increased. Thus, retinal vascular occlusions can be the first manifestation of primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Although it may not improve visual prognosis, prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid further significant morbidity.
Keywords: Antiphospholipid syndrome/complications; Retinal vein occlusion; Retinal artery occlusion; Mycoplasma infection; Humans; Case report.
This article reports the case of an 11-year-old male patient with a history of proptosis and low progressive visual acuity in the left eye. He presented with a best corrected visual acuity of 20/25 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. Exotropia and limitation in adduction were observed in the left eye. On automated perimetry, inferiortemporal quadrantopsia was observed in the right eye, while total scotoma was observed in the left eye. On magnetic resonance imaging, there was an expansive lesion in the left optic nerve, extending to the brainstem with chiasmatic involvement. This article aims to report a case of optic pathway glioma, as well as to discuss its clinical findings and their interconnection with the current literature.
Keywords: Glioma; Optic nerve neoplasms; Optic chiasm; Astrocytoma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Visual Acuity; Case reports; Humans.
Keratoconus is a progressive disorder that manifests as a cone-like steepening of the central or paracentral inferior cornea and irregular stromal thinning. There is a gradual decrease in visual acuity due to corneal asymmetry, irregular astigmatism, and increased optical aberrations, consequently impacting the quality of life. Several procedures have been developed in an attempt to slow or reverse the progression. The Bader procedure, which includes a pattern of incisions around the circumference of the cornea and at the base of the protruding cone, is one such surgery. These incisions penetrate 70-90% of the cornea’s depth. Its goal is to flatten the topography and reduce corneal asymmetry and irregular astigmatism. Though prior research found these to be highly promising, we report a patient who was given contact lenses to restore and maintain his vision while his corneal ectasia and thinning progressed over the following decade.
Keywords: Keratoconus; Astigmatism; Cornea; Corneal topography; Ophthalmologic surgical procedures; Contact lenses; Dilatation; pathologic; Acuidade visual; Quality of life.
Purpose: To determine normal corneal tomographic parameters in children and adolescents without corneal disease or atopy diagnosis.
Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study evaluated patients aged 8-16 years who underwent a complete slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination and tomographic corneal evaluation by a dual Scheimpflug analyzer, excluding those with ocular disease (including allergic conjunctivitis) or a positive prick test for systemic atopies.
Results: A total of 170 patients were evaluated, and 34 patients (68 eyes) were analyzed once the exclusion criteria were applied. The sample’s mean age was 10.76 ± 2.31 years; with 19 (55.9%) men and 15 (44.1%) women. The mean keratometry in the flat meridian (Kflat), steep meridian (Ksteep), and maximum (Kmax) were 42.37 ± 1.63D, 43.53 ± 1.65D, and 43.90 ± 1.73D, respectively. The mean values for corneal asphericity (ε2) and thinnest point were 0.28 ± 0.11 and 550.20 ± 37.90 μm, respectively. The inferior-superior asymmetry ratio (I-S) and coma were 0.74 ±0.59D and 0.28 ± 0.12D, respectively.
Conclusion: The knowledge of normal corneal tomographic parameters and their variation in children and adolescents without corneal disease or atopy may be useful for diagnosing keratoconus and initiating early disease treatment.
Keywords: Cornea; Corneal topography; Astigmatism; Conjunctivitis; allergic; Tomography; Keratoconus/diagnosis; Humans; Child; Adolescent.
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of serum G receptor-mediated protein-1 levels on the development of retinopathy in patients with diabetes in comparison with healthy individuals.
Methods: The study enrolled patients with diabetic retinopathy (Group 1), patients without diabetic retinopathy (Group 2), and healthy individuals (Group 3). Levels of serum progesterone, serum G receptor-mediated protein-1, estradiol, oxidant/antioxidants, and thyroid-releasing hormones were analyzed and compared among the groups. Post-hoc analysis was performed to compare the subgroups in which significant differences were found.
Results: Groups 1, 2, and 3 each included 40 patients. A significant difference was found among all groups in terms of serum G receptor-mediated protein-1, oxidant/antioxidant, and estradiol levels (p<0.01), but no significant difference was found in terms of thyroid-releasing hormone or progesterone (p=0.496, p=0.220, respectively). In the post-hoc analysis of the groups with significant differences, another significant difference was found among all groups for serum G receptor-mediated protein-1 and oxidant/antioxidant levels (p<0.05). Serum G receptor-mediated protein-1 and oxidant levels were positively correlated, whereas serum G receptor-mediated protein-1 and antioxidant levels were negatively correlated (r=0.622/p<0.01, r=0.453/p<0.01, r=0.460/p<0.01, respectively). The multiple regression analysis showed that increased levels of serum G receptor-mediated protein-1 may help prevent diabetic retinopathy.
Conclusions: Serum G receptor-mediated protein-1 levels, which were the highest in the diabetic retinopathy Group, increased as the oxidant/antioxidant balance changed in favor of oxidative stress. This appears to be a defense mechanism for preventing neuronal damage.
Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy; GPER-1; Estradiol; Progesterone; Oxidative stress; Oxidants.
Purpose: To assess the anterior and posterior segments of full-term neonates over a 1.5-year period.
Methods: The findings of full-term neonates who underwent ophthalmological examinations between June 2019 and December 2020 were analyzed, and the results were retrospectively recorded.
Results: The study comprised 2972 neonates with a mean birth week of 38.7 ± 1.2 weeks and a mean birth weight of 3235 ± 464 g. The neonates were examined on an average of 49.3 ± 18.9 postnatal days. Of the examined neonates, 185 (6.2%) showed abnormal ophthalmological findings, the most prevalent of which were retinal hemorrhage in 2.3% (n=68) and white changes in the peripheral retina in 1.9% (n=55) of the neonates. Cases of optic disc pathologies (n=20), choroidal nevus (n=10), iris-choroidal coloboma (n=5), subconjunctival hemorrhage (n=6), non-specific retinal pigmentary change (n=4), congenital cataract (n=3), posterior synechia (n=3), iris nevus (n=3), corneal opacity (n=1), choroidal coloboma (n=1), iris coloboma (n=1), buphthalmos (n=1), anophthalmos (n=1), microphthalmia (n=1), lid hemangioma (n=1), and vitreous hemorrhage (n=1) collectively accounted for approximately 2% of all neonates. Pathologies that could potentially impair vision, which were detected by ophthalmological examination, accounted for 1.2% of all neonates (n=37).
Conclusion: The most prevalent finding of the ophthalmological examinations of neonates in the present study was retinal hemorrhage. Ophthalmological examinations of neonates can help in identifying diseases that may affect their vision and are curable or may lead to amblyopia in the long term.
Keywords: Eye abnormalities/diagnosis; Retinal; hemorrhage; Neonatal screening; Vision screening; Humans; Infant; newborn.
Purposes: The purpose of this study is to compare the standard inner limiting membrane peeling technique to the inner limiting membrane abrasion technique with respect to visual outcomes and central retinal thickness in the primary epiretinal membrane surgery.
Methods: A total of 59 eyes from 57 epiretinal membrane patients were separated into two groups including the standard inner limiting membrane peeling group and the inner limiting membrane peeling with abrasion technique group. At 6, 12, and 24 months of follow-up, the mean alteration in best-corrected visual acuity and central retinal thickness were assessed for each group.
Results: The study includes 32 (54%) standard inner peeling and 27 (46%) inner limiting membrane peeling with abrasion technique patients. The mean preoperative logMAR best-corrected visual acuity for the standard inner limiting membrane peeling and inner limiting membrane peeling with abrasion groups was 0.73 (±0.29) and 0.61 (±0.3) respectively. At 6, 12, and 24 months of follow-up, the best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly in each group. At each period of observation, the alteration in best-corrected visual acuity was not statistically significant (p=0.54, p=0.52, p=0.67). When comparing the alterations between the standard inner limiting membrane peeling and inner limiting membrane peeling with abrasion technique groups at 6 months (p=0.26) and 24 months (p=0.06), no statistically significant differences were observed, but they were statistically different at 12 months (p=0.03), reflecting a greater reduction in central retinal thickness for the inner limiting membrane peeling with abrasion technique group after one year.
Conclusion: Abrasion of the inner limiting membrane with a diamond-dusted membrane scraper during epiretinal membrane surgery demonstrates similar effectiveness to the standard inner limiting membrane peeling technique. At 12 months, retinal thinning was found to be more significant in inner limiting membrane peeling with abrasion technique patients in terms of central retinal thickness values. As a result, it may be argued that the inner limiting membrane abrasion technique eliminates the inner limiting membrane and related structures more effectively while inflicting less retinal damage.
Keywords: Epiretinal membrane; Vitrectomy; Diamond-dusted membrane scraper.
Purpose: This study investigates the protective effect of cilostazol on the development and evolution of diabetic retinopathy in rats.
Methods: Sixty male rats were divided into four groups: untreated nondiabetic rats, untreated diabetic rats, cilostazol-treated nondiabetic rats, and cilostazol-treated diabetic rats. The thickness of the internal limiting membrane to the outer limiting membrane, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, and outer nuclear layer were measured. The number of cell nuclei per 50-µm length in retinal sections was counted to quantify the degree of retinal cell loss.
Results: The number of nuclei in the ganglion cell layer was significantly higher in untreated nondiabetic rats (p<0.05). The mean number of nuclei in the cilostazol-treated nondiabetic rats was significantly higher than that in the cilostazol-treated diabetic rats (p<0.05). The cilostazol-treated nondiabetic rats had a significantly higher mean nuclei count in the inner nuclear layer and inner plexiform layer as compared with the other groups (p<0.05). The total mean retinal thickness of the cilostazol-treated nondiabetic rats was significantly higher than that of cilostazol-treated diabetic rats and untreated diabetic rats (p<0.05).
Conclusion: By decreasing the loss of ganglion cells and reducing the sensorineural atrophy in the internal retinal layers, cilostazol had a protective effect against changes caused by diabetic retinopathy in diabetic rats.
Keywords: Cilostazol; Diabetic retinopathy; Ganglion cell; Retina; Rats; Wistar.
Purpose: To examine the epidemiological characteristics of children undergoing cataract surgery at a referral center in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, as well as the facts surrounding treatment delays.
Methods: In this transversal observational study, 240 operated eyes from 178 children undergoing cataract surgery were reviewed. The following aspects were analyzed: epidemiological and clinical characteristics, parental observations, red reflex test, operated eye, and age at cataract diagnosis and surgery.
Results: The mean ages at the first visit and cataract surgery were 48.9 months (SD=50.0 months) and 64.5 months (SD= 55.4 months), respectively. The most critical sign adverted by parents was leukocoria. The red reflex test was performed on two-thirds of the children, with abnormal results in 28.0%. A family history of cataracts was evident in 30 (20,9%) children (n=144). Previous ocular surgery was found in 37 (16,6%) of the eyes (n=223), anterior segment disorders in 20 (9,0%) eyes (n=221), strabismus in 21 (9,5%) of the eyes (n=220), and nystagmus in 38 (24,4%) of the children (n=156).
Conclusions: One of the causes for the delay in admission may have been the failure to complete the red reflex. In terms of etiology, heredity was the most crucial component. The presence of strabismus and nystagmus in many of these children points to late diagnosis. The most significant impediments to adequate cataract treatment in children were the lack of referral programs and children’s specialized ophthalmologic centers, in addition to the restricted number of support professionals trained in the field and pediatric ophthalmology specialists.
Keywords: Cataract/congenital; Cataract extraction; Diagnostic techniques, ophthalmological; Low vision; Tertiary healthcare; Child
This work is a critical review of the current understanding of the effect of ultraviolet radiation on the eye. It deals with the classification of this radiation, environmental level, and the factors that determine it, along with penetration into the human eye, toxicity to ocular structures, associated morbidities, events that may increase the vulnerability of the eye, and artificial eye filters.
Keywords: Electromagnetic radiation; Ultraviolet rays; Eye burns; Ultraviolet filters; Visual disorders
Purpose: In glaucoma, initial visual field scotomas can be peripheral or central, whereas central scotomas are more severe and can disrupt daily activities. Individual anatomical features may influence the distribution of retinal nerve fibers and the starting site of visual field defects in glaucoma. In this study, we aimed to correlate myopia and hyperopia or anatomical variation of the disk-fovea angle with initial central or peripheral lesions in the visual field.
Methods: This cross-sectional study included patients with primary open-angle glaucoma divided into a group of isolated central or peripheral scotomas in the visual field with MD > or equal to -6 dB, correlating with the degree of ametropia and anatomical variations, such as the disk-fovea angle.
Results: We included 52 patients with glaucoma. Of 20 myopic patients, 6 (30%) had central scotomas, and 14 (70%) had peripheral scotomas. Of 32 hyperopic patients, 12 (37.5%) had central scotomas, and 20 (63.5%) had peripheral scotomas. Regarding the disk-fovea angle, 25 eyes had the disk-fovea angle of < -7°, with 9 (36%) eyes presenting with central scotoma, and 27 eyes presented with the disk-fovea angle of > -7°, with 9 (33.3%) eyes presenting with a central scotoma.
Conclusion: This study showed an association between ametropia and scotomas on the perimetry in patients with glaucoma. Patients had a higher incidence of peripheral scotomas, but hyperopic patients had a greater number of central scotomas than myopic patients, and myopic patients had more peripheral scotomas than hyperopic patients. The disk-fovea angle was not correlated with scotomas in initial glaucoma.
Keywords: Glaucoma; Ametropia; Foveal disk angle, Scotoma
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking on trabeculectomy outcomes.
Methods: Charts of patients with glaucoma who underwent trabeculectomy performed by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Charts were screened for a documented history of smoking status before surgery. Demographic and clinical preoperative variables were recorded. Based on smoking history, subjects were divided into two groups: smokers and nonsmokers. Any bleb-related interventions (e.g., 5-flourouracil injections ± laser suture lysis) or bleb revision performed during the postoperative period were noted. Success was defined as an intraocular pressure >5 mmHg and <21 mm Hg without (complete success) or with (qualified success) the use of ocular hypotensive medications. Failure was identified as a violation of the criteria mentioned above.
Results: A total of 98 eyes from 83 subjects were included. The mean age of the subjects was 70.7 ± 11.09 years, and 53% (44/83) were female. The most common diagnosis was primary open-angle glaucoma in 47 cases (47.9%). The smokers Group included 30 eyes from 30 subjects. When compared with nonsmokers, smokers had a significantly worse preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (p=0.038), greater central corneal thickness (p=0.047), and higher preoperative intraocular pressure (p=0.011). The success rate of trabeculectomy surgery at 1 year was 56.7% in the smokers Group compared with 79.4% in the Group nonsmokers (p=0.020). Smoking presented an odds ratio for failure of 2.95 (95% confidence interval, 1.6-7.84).
Conclusion: Smokers demonstrated a significantly lower success rate 1 year after trabeculectomy compared with nonsmokers and a higher requirement for bleb-related interventions.
Keywords: Glaucoma open-angle; Trabeculectomy; Intraocular pressure; Tobacco use disorder; Tobacco/adverse effects; Visual acuity
Purpose: To present long-term results of pars plana vitrectomy combined with pan-retinal endolaser photocoagulation, Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation, and/or phacoemulsification in patients with complicated neovascular glaucoma.
Methods: The study comprised 15 eyes from 15 patients with neovascular glaucoma as a complication of diabetic retinopathy and owing to ischemic central retinal vein occlusion. There was a vitreous hemorrhage n all of the patients. Furthermore, 8 of the cases showed varying degrees of hyphema. All subjects received an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab three days before surgery. In 12 phakic patients, phacoemulsification, pars plana vitrectomy, and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation were performed. Pars plana vitrectomy and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation were performed in 3 pseudophakic patients. Perioperative and postoperative complications, intraocular pressure values, and best-corrected visual acuity scores were also recorded.
Results: The mean follow-up was 24.4 ± 14.56 months. The mean preoperative intraocular pressure was 50.06 ± 7.6 mmHg. At 1 day, 7 days, and 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-month, and last visit following surgery, the mean intraocular pressure was 11.06 ± 8.22, 12.66 ± 7.27, 13.8 ± 7.73, 18.64 ± 7.05, 19.28 ± 4.61, 16.28 ± 1.68, and 16.92 ± 2.12 mmHg, respectively (p=0.001 for every follow-up visit). The mean visual acuity on the most recent appointment was 1.18 ± 0.42 logMar (p=0.001 for each subsequent visit). As postoperative early complications, varying degrees of hyphema and fibrin reactions were recorded. During follow-up, one patient developed phthisis bulbi. In 4 cases, Ahmed glaucoma valve revision surgery was required.
Conclusions: In patients with complicated neovascular glaucoma, combined surgical procedures are safe, effective, and preferable both in terms of controlling high intraocular pressure and providing reasonable visual abilities.
Keywords: Glaucoma, neovascular/complications; Vitrectomy; Glaucoma drainage implants; Phacoemulsification
Purpose: Only a few trials have compared the intraocular pressure-lowering effects of prostaglandin analogs to carbonic anhydrase inhibitor plus beta-blocker fixed-dose combination therapy in patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. Furthermore, the influence of the glaucoma stage on the intraocular pressure-lowering effects of these drug types has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to compare the IOP-lowering efficacy of latanoprost, a prostaglandin analog versus dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor plus beta-blocker fixed-dose combination therapy, in patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma based on glaucoma stage.
Methods: The data of 32 eyes (32 patients) diagnosed with uniocular pseudoexfoliative glaucoma and treated with topical latanoprost (Group 1) or dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination (Group 2) were retrospectively assessed. The groups were subdivided into early and moderate-advanced stages. Patients’ demographics, baseline intraocular pressure, final intraocular pressure, and intraocular pressure difference (the difference between the baseline and final intraocular pressure) were determined from medical records and compared between groups and according to glaucoma stage.
Results: The mean drug use duration was 17.7 ± 13.5 months. No significant differences in mean baseline intraocular pressure, mean final intraocular pressure and mean intraocular pressure difference between Groups 1 and 2. In Group 2, the mean intraocular pressure difference was significantly greater in patients with early versus moderate-advanced stage glaucoma (p=0.015). The difference, however, was not detected in Group 1. The mean intraocular pressure difference in early-stage glaucoma was significantly greater in Group 2 versus 1 (p=0.033).
Conclusions: Latanoprost and dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination are effective treatments for newly diagnosed pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. In early-stage pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, greater intraocular pressure reduction was noted with dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination than with latanoprost; thus, dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination should be considered when a significant decrease in intraocular pressure is desired in early-stage glaucoma.
Keywords: Dorzolamide; Timolol; Glaucoma; Pseudoexfoliative glaucoma; Intraocular pressure; Latanoprost; Pharmaceutical preparations
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the vascular effects of photobiomodulation using a light-emitting diode on the chorioallantoic embryonic membrane of chicken eggs grouped into different times of exposure and to detect the morphological changes induced by the light on the vascular network architecture using quantitative metrics.
Methods: We used a phototherapy device with light-emitting diode (670 nm wavelength) as the source of photobiomodulation. We applied the red light at a distance of 2.5 cm to the surface of the chorioallantoic embryonic membrane of chicken eggs in 2, 4, or 8 sessions for 90 s and analyzed the vascular network architecture using AngioTool software (National Cancer Institute, USA). We treated the negative control group with 50 µl phosphate-buffered-saline (pH 7.4) and the positive control group (Beva) with 50 µl bevacizumab solution (Avastin, Produtos Roche Químicos e Farmacêuticos, S.A., Brazil).
Results: We found a decrease in total vessel length in the Beva group (24.96% ± 12.85%) and in all the groups that received 670 nm red light therapy (2× group, 34.66% ± 8.66%; 4× group, 42.42% ± 5.26%; 8× group, 38.48% ± 6.96%), compared with the negative control group. The fluence of 5.4 J/cm2 in 4 sessions (4×) showed more regular vessels. The number of junctions in the groups that received a higher incidence of 670 nm red light (4× and 8×) significantly decreased (p<0.0001).
Conclusion: Photobiomodulation helps reduce vascularization in chorioallantoic embryonic membrane of chicken eggs and changes in the network architecture. Our results open the possibility of future clinical studies on using this therapy in patients with retinal diseases with neovascular components, especially age-related macular degeneration.
Keywords: Photobiomodulation; Chorioallantoic membrane; Red light therapy; Angiogenesis; Age-related macular degeneration; Retinal vessels
Medical specialties have recognized that breaking bad news assists clinical practice by mitigating the impact of difficult conversations. This scenario also encourages various studies on breaking bad news in ophthalmology since certain ocular diagnoses can be considered bad news. Thus, the objective is to review the scientific literature on breaking bad news in ophthalmology. The literature databases like MEDLINE/PUBMED, EMBASE, LILACS, SCOPUS, COCHRANE, and SCIELO, were screened for related research publications. Two independent reviewers read all the articles and short-listed the most relevant ones. Seven articles, in the formats of original article, review, editorial, oral communication, and correspondence, were reviewed. Conclusively it reveals that ophthalmologists are concerned with communicating bad news effectively but lack related studies. Nevertheless, there is a growing realization that training in breaking bad news can increase physicians’ confidence during communication, thus, benefiting the therapeutic relationship with the patient and his family. Therefore, it would be valuable to include breaking bad news training in the curriculum of residencies.
Keywords: Breaking bad news; Communication; Clinical Competence; Physician-patient relationship; Ophthalmology; Truth disclosure
A 59-year-old man presented with a unilateral blurring of vision in his left eye. His left eye’s visual acuity was hand movements level. He underwent phacoemulsification surgery, and an intrastromal posterior chamber intraocular lens was implanted. The intrastromal intraocular lens was extracted and a new intraocular lens was implanted. Usinge the Snellen chart, the final best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40. With this case report, we wish to emphasize that a single stepwise clear corneal incision merged with wound-assisted intraocular lens injections can result in intraocular lens misdirection into the corneal stroma. As a result, while performing a misdirected intraocular lens removal, we recommend that the wound be carefully constructed.
Keywords: Lens implantation, intraocular; Lenses, intraocular; Phacoemulsification; Wound healing; Cataract; Visual acuity
This case report presents the details of a 33-year-old female patient who was referred to a specialized retina service because of mild vision loss in her right eye). The patient’s visual acuity was 20/25 in right eye and 20/50 in the left eye (; amblyopic); the spherical equivalent was -12.75 diopters (right eye) and -14.75 diopters (left eye). Multimodal retinal imaging showed peripapillary schisis in both the inner and outer retinal layers, grade II posterior vitreous detachment, and a tessellated fundus. Using Humphrey perimetry and MP-3 microperimetry, the functional evaluation indicated macular sensitivity within normal limits and decreased sensitivity in the peripapillary region, especially in right eye. The pattern-reversal visual evoked potential was measured. The N75 and P100 latency and amplitude in right eye were within normal values for checks of 1o. However, the amplitude was low for checks of 15´. Highly myopic patients who have posterior staphyloma that involves the optic nerve are susceptible to posterior hyaloid traction, and the resulting peripapillary vitreous traction may compromise vision.
Keywords: Myopia, degenerative; Retinoschisis; Retinal detachment; Optical coherence tomography; Humans; Case reports
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) vitreolysis for symptomatic vitreous floaters as it remains a controversial procedure due to insufficient robust evidence in the literature for the maintenance of the results and absence of adverse effects.
Methods: This is an observational extension to the previously presented prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Eight of thirteen subjects who underwent vitreolysis with YAG laser returned for a late reevaluation, 18 months after the procedure, to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the procedure.
Results: All patients maintained the improvement in symptomatology noted after the procedure, with 25% showing complete improvement and a similar proportion (37.5%) reporting significant or partial improvement. Objective improvement in opacity was similar to that found at 6 months follow-up. The NEI-VFQ 25 quality of life questionnaire showed no statistically significant difference in responses between the 6th and 18th month. No adverse effects were noted on clinical examination or reported by patients.
Conclusion: Vitreolysis efficacy observed at 6 months of follow-up was maintained until the eighteenth month, with all patients reporting improvement from the pre-procedure state. No late adverse effects were noted. A larger randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm the safety of the procedure.
Keywords: Laser therapy; Lasers, solid-state; Vitrectomy; Vitreous body; Vitreoretinal surgery; Visual acuity; Eye diseases; Quality of life; Surveys and questionnaires
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraretinal layer thickness in the macular region and its correlation with the duration of uveitis and visual acuity in patients with Behçet uveitis.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 93 eyes of 57 patients with Behçet uveitis and 100 eyes of 50 healthy individuals admitted to a tertiary center from January to September 2017. We performed macular measurements in all subjects via spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and divided the retina into layers using automated segmentation software on the SD-OCT device. We then compared layer thicknesses between the patient and control groups and evaluated the correlation between OCT parameters and the duration of uveitis and visual acuity in the patient group.
Results: Our records show a mean age of 37.9 ± 10.8 (18-64) years and 37.7 ± 12.2 (21-61) years in the patient and control groups (p=0.821), respectively. Meanwhile, data reveal a mean duration of uveitis of 6.9 ± 4.7 (1-20) years. We found a reduction in the total outer layer thickness in the patient group (p<0.001). However, we did not find a statistically significant difference in the inner retinal layers except in the inner nuclear layer. The duration of uveitis negatively correlated with the outer retinal layer’s thickness (correlation coefficient = -0.250). On the other hand, visual acuity positively correlated with the central macular, the total inner layer, and the outer retinal layer thicknesses (correlation coefficients: 0.194, 0.154, and 0.364, respectively). However, the inner nuclear layer negatively correlated with visual acuity.
Conclusions: Using retinal segmentation via SD-OCT for follow-ups can help estimate visual loss in patients with Behçet uveitis, which can cause significant changes in intraretinal layers in the macular region.
Keywords: Behçet disease; Behçet uveitis; Intraretinal layers; Optical coherence tomography; Retinal segmentation
A 42-year-old female patient had vision loss and chronic epiphora in her left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 10/10 in the right eye and 0.3/10 in the left eye. The anterior segment examination results were normal. In fundus examination, choroidal folds were detected. Optical coherence tomography showed elevation on the macula and choroidal folds. Ultrasonography revealed a T-sign. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an ethmoidal mucocele that compresses the orbital tissues. Surgical treatment was performed in the otorhinolaryngology department. Postoperatively, choroidal folds recovered, and the best-corrected visual acuity improved, but subretinal fluid accumulated. During the follow-up period without any treatment, subretinal fluid totally disappeared.
Keywords: Maculopathy; Tomography, optical coherence; Choroid diseases, Mucocele
Purpose: To assess the effects of the preoperative application of artificial tears combined with recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor on the ocular surface function and inflammatory factor levels after operation in cataract patients complicated with dry eyes.
Methods: A total of 118 cataract patients (118 eyes) complicated with dry eyes treated from February 2019 to February2020 were assigned to control and observation groups (n=59 eyes/group) using a random number table. One week before the operation, the control group was administered 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops (artificial tears), based on which the observation group received Beifushu eye drops (recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor), both 6 times daily for 1 week. A comparison was made between the scores of clinical symptoms and the indices of ocular surface function, inflammatory factors in tears, and oxidative stress indices before and after the operation. The ocular surface function was evaluated by an ocular surface disease index questionnaire, tear film breakup-time assay, Schirmer’s I test, and corneal fluorescein stain test. The inflammatory factors in tears were measured.
Results: No significant differences were noted in the general data and clinical symptom score, ocular surface disease index, tear film breakup-time, Schirmer’s I test score, fluorescein stain score, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxide, and total antioxidant capacity before treatment between the 2 groups (p>0.05). After treatment, the clinical symptom score, ocular surface disease index, fluorescein stain score, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde and lipid peroxide declined significantly, and tear film breakup-time, Schirmer’s I test score, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity increased in both the groups. The improvements in the clinical symptom score as well as in the indices of ocular surface function, inflammatory factors, and oxidative stress were more prominent in the observation group than in the control group (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Artificial tears combined with recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor before operation. significantly improved the ocular surface function, reduced inflammatory factors in tears, and alleviated dry eye symptoms after operation in cataract patients.
Keywords: Artificial tear; Basic fibroblast growth factor; Ocular surface; Cataract; Dry eyes
Purpose: This study aimed to screen the ocular surface of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and identify the adverse effects of methylphenidate related to dry eye disease.
Methods: This cross-sectional study included children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and healthy children (all aged 5-18 years). They were randomized into Group A (without methylphenidate treatment), Group B (with methylphenidate treatment), and Group C (healthy children). Tear film break-up time, Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, tear meniscus height, tear meniscus area, and Schirmer test results were evaluated. Furthermore, symptom severity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was assessed by Turgay DSM-IV-based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale and Conners Parent Rating Scale-48.
Results: Groups A, B, and C consisted of 34, 40, and 60 individuals (n=34, 40, and 60 eyes; age=11.44 ± 2.79, 11.70 ± 2.83, and 11.96 ± 3.63 years, median age=12, 12, and 11.5 years), respectively. Tear film break-up time, Ocular Surface Disease Index, tear meniscus height, tear meniscus area, and Schirmer test results were not significantly different between Groups A and C (p=0.964, 0.336, 0.445, 0.439, and 0.759, respectively). However, Group B showed a significant decrease in tear film break-up time (10.50 ± 3.39 vs. 12.52 ± 2.46 s; p=0.005), tear meniscus height (307.40 ± 5.53 vs. 310.82 ± 7.30 µm; p=0.025), tear meniscus area (0.024 ± 0.0037 vs. 0.026 ± 0.0046 mm2; p=0.010) and Schirmer test (12.75 ± 3.96 vs. 15.41 ± 3.75 mm; p=0.004) results compared with Group A.
Conclusion: Compared with healthy children, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder showed ocular surface parameters suggestive of dry eye disease despite taking methylphenidate. Thus, they require close ophthalmologic follow-up to prevent sight-threatening dry eye complications.
Keywords: Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity; Methylphenidate/adverse effects; Anterior eye segment; Optical coherence tomography; Dry eye syndromes.
Due to the development of complications and the biocompatibility and scarcity of transplant donor tissues, artificial corneas, which can be used for the rehabilitation of optical functions, have been developed. The current study aimed to analyze the visual rehabilitation effects of the Boston type I keratoprosthesis, Boston type II keratoprosthesis, Aurolab keratoprosthesis, osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis, and tibial bone keratoprosthesis. Results showed that the Boston type I keratoprosthesis was the most effective for visual rehabilitation in patients with moist ocular surfaces. The Aurolab keratoprosthesis had a lower efficacy for visual rehabilitation. Nevertheless, it is still a viable option for individuals in economically restricted countries. In patients with dry eyes, the Boston type II keratoprosthesis was associated with the best visual rehabilitation. However, the final visual acuity of patients who received osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis and tibial bone keratoprosthesis implantation was not evaluated as the necessary information was not available.
Keywords: Corneal transplantation; Visual prosthesis; Cornea; Rehabilitation; Visual acuity
Purpose: In this prospective study, we compared ocular clinical variables in patients with acne vulgaris with those of healthy controls. These variables included tear film break-up time, meibomian gland dropout rate, and anterior chamber parameters.
Methods: Our sample comprised 73 eyes from 73 patients with acne vulgaris and 67 eyes from 67 healthy controls. All participants underwent a non-invasive first tear film break-up time test and the average tear film break-up time was evaluated. Meibography was used to identify any meibomian gland dropout. The parameters of the cornea and anterior chamber were measured using Scheimpflug topography imaging. Finally, the ocular surface disease index questionnaire was administered to score each participant on their subjective experience of ocular complaints.
Results: The noninvasive first tear film break-up time values of the acne vulgaris Group and the control Group were 4.7 ± 2.8 and 6.4 ± 3.5 sec, respectively. There was a significant difference between the groups (p=0.016). The number of eyes with tear break-up at any time during the measurement period was also significantly higher in the acne Group (p=0.018). In the acne vulgaris Group, the mean meibomian gland dropout rates were 33.21 ± 15.5% in the upper lids and 45.4 ± 14.5% in the lower lids. In the control group, these rates were 15.7 ± 6.9% and 21 ± 9.7% respectively. Dropout was significantly higher in the acne group for both the upper and lower lids (p=0.000).
Conclusion: We found impaired tear stability in patients with acne vulgaris and a high rate of meibomian gland dropout. These glands play a key role in tear stability and their dropout is likely to result in evaporative dry eye. Measurement of the variables in this study allows objective diagnosis of this condition using a non-invasive, dye-free methodology, with minimum contact.
Keywords: Acne vulgaris; Meibomian glands; Anterior chamber; Noninvasive break-up time test; Tear film
We report a case of bilateral acute depigmentation of the iris in which satisfactory intraocular pressure control was obtained after resolution of the acute disease with a trabecular implant (iStent®). A 62-year-old woman presented with bilateral simultaneous acute eye pain, photophobia, increased intraocular pressure (34 mmHg), circulating pigment in the anterior chamber, areas of depigmentation in the iris, and posterior synechiae. She had received oral amoxicillin-clavulanate and moxifloxacin for pneumonia 2 months previously. Bilateral acute depigmentation of the iris was suspected as well as a viral etiology. She received oral acetazolamide, aciclovir, and prednisone, besides topical prednisolone, betaxolol, brimonidine, dorzolamide, and atropine. The disease gradually resolved in 4 months but, after 1 year, she developed bilateral cataracts, and still needed three drugs for intraocular pressure control (16/18 mmHg). Cataract-iStent® combined surgery was performed in both eyes. One year after surgery, intraocular pressure was 11/12 mmHg, without medication. iStent® was safe and effective on this secondary glaucoma.
Keywords: Iris disease; Cataract; Ocular hypertension; Stents; Gonioscopy
A 33-year-old male presented with unilateral subacute infectious keratitis 4 weeks after surgery. Corneal inflammation was resistant to standard topical antibiotic regimens. During diagnostic flap lifting and sampling, the corneal flap melted and separated. Through flap lifting, corneal scraping, microbiological diagnosis of atypical mycobacteria, and treatment with topical fortified amikacin, clarithromycin, and systemic clarithromycin, clinical improvement was achieved.
Keywords: Cornea/microbiology; Corneal ulcer; Eye infections, bacterial; Mycobacterium abscessus; Refractive surgical procedures; Keratomileusis, laser in situ; Amikacin/therapeutic use; Clarithromycin/therapeutic use; Humans; Case reports
A 51-year-old non-obese woman presented with a one-week history of progressive blurry vision within the inferior visual field of her left eye. Her only relevant past medical history was long-standing hypothyroidism and recent vaccination against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) with an mRNA vaccine 12 days before the onset of symptoms. At examination, the anterior segment was unremarkable, but the retinal fundus revealed a central retinal vein occlusion associated with a branch retinal artery occlusion of the superior temporal branch in her left eye. Ancillary tests to rule out thrombophilia, hyperviscosity, hypercoagulability, or inflammation were negative. Ultrasound tests were also negative for a cardiac or carotid origin of the branch retinal artery occlusion. At two-month follow-up, no new retinal vascular occlusive events were observed. Although the best-corrected visual acuity at presentation was 8/10 in the left eye, the final best-corrected visual acuity remained 3/10.
Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines/adverse effects; RNA, messenger; Retinal vein occlusion/diagnosis; Retinal artery occlusion; Humans; Case report
PURPOSE: Trimethylamine N-oxide serum levels have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications. The current study aimed to find out if plasma trimethylamine N-oxide level may be a novel marker in the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy and if it can be used in the differential diagnosis of diabetic and nondiabetic retinopathy.
METHODS: The study included 30 patients with diabetic retinopathy, 30 patients with nondiabetic retinopathy, 30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without retinopathy, and 30 healthy control participants. Biochemical parameters, serum IL-6, TNF-α, and trimethylamine N-oxide levels were measured in all participants.
RESULTS: Trimethylamine N-oxide level was significantly higher in diabetic retinopathy than in the other groups (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in trimethylamine N-oxide levels between nondiabetic retinopathy and control or type 2 diabetes mellitus Groups. There was a significant positive correlation between trimethylamine N-oxide level and elevated FPG, BMI, HOMA-IR score, BUN, IL-6, and TNF-α levels.
CONCLUSION: The current study showed that the trimethylamine N-oxide level is elevated in diabetic retinopathy. These findings suggest that serum trimethylamine N-oxide level might be a novel marker for diabetic retinopathy, and it might be used in the differential diagnosis of diabetic and nondiabetic retinopathy.
Keywords: Biomarkers; Diabetic retinopathy; Differential diagnosis; Oxides; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Trimethylamine-N-oxide; Trimethyloxamine
PURPOSE: To translate and validate a questionnaire that evaluates the theoretical knowledge regarding fundus examination.
METHODS: A 60-item multiple-choice English questionnaire that investigates various aspects of knowledge regarding fundus examination was translated into Portuguese. The process involved translation, back-translation, and evaluation by an expert committee. The resulting questionnaire was applied to final-year medical students and ophthalmology residents. Each included subject answered the questionnaire twice, with an interval of one week between each application. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and percentage agreement were calculated.
RESULTS: Thirty participants were included (25 medical students and 5 ophthalmology residents). The pass-fail cutoff was calculated at 46, the theoretical false positives were 8.7% and the theoretical false negatives were 2.8%. The observed false positive and false negative rates were 0%. Among the 60 items, test-retest reliability was strong in 17 items, which one had a negative correlation, moderate in 14 items, which one had a negative correlation, and weak in 29 items; inter-rater reliability of 34 items was under 0.4, 17 items were between 0.4 and 0.6, and 8 items were above 0.6. One item had a negative kappa. Among the percent agreement, 10 items were between 40%-60% agreement, 50 were above 60% agreement, and 18 were above 80%. Cronbach’s alpha was calculated as 0.674.
CONCLUSIONS: The translated questionnaire provided a standard instrument for future research and interventions to improve medical education in ophthalmology.
Keywords: Questionnaire and surveys; Translating; Fundus oculi
PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of impaired vision. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of use of portable retinograph and remote analysis of images along with a virtual questionnaire for screening for diabetic retinopathy in basic health units in the city of Ribeirão Preto/SP during the Covid-19 pandemic.
METHODS: Standard Covid-19 protocol was followed during the screening. Blood pressure and capillary blood glucose were measured. Demographic and social data were collected through a standardized online questionnaire via smartphone. After pupillary dilation, fundal images were obtained with portable retinographs by trained ophthalmology residents. Two standardized 45° images were acquired: one posterior segment and another nasal to the optic nerve. Diabetic retinopathy was classified according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study.
RESULTS: A total of 350 patients (64% female; 45% aged 55-70 years; 55% Caucasian) were evaluated. For 40.5% of patients, the campaign was the first opportunity for retinal evaluation; 47.56% had diabetes mellitus for >10 years. On repeat analysis of images stored in a cloud-based repository by retinal specialist, a 7.8% difference was observed in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study diabetic retinopathy classification, compared to the screening findings. Mild diabetic retinopathy was observed in 12.23%, moderate diabetic retinopathy in 6.31%, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in 2.58% patients. Macular edema was present in 4.58% patients. Diabetic retinopathy was not detected in 72.78% patients.
CONCLUSION: Use of portable retinographs together with telemedicine can provide efficient alternative to traditional methods for screening and diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy.
Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy/diagnosis; Covid-19; Retina/ diagnostic imaging; Ophthalmology/instrumentation; Ophthalmoscopes; Point-of-care systems; Telemedicine/methods.
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms of injury and types of orbital fractures and their relation to concurrent commotio retinae.
METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the records of patients with orbital fractures whose diagnoses had been confirmed by computer tomography between July 2017 and September 2019. Patient demographics, the circumstances of injury, ophthalmic examination results, and radiological findings were tabulated. Statistical analysis of the data used two-tailed student’s t-tests, chi-squared tests, and odds ratio calculations. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.
RESULTS: Of the 204 patients with orbital fractures included in this study, 154 (75.5%) were male. The mean age was 42.1 years. Orbital fractures involving one orbital wall (58.8%) were more common than those affecting multiple walls (41.2%). The majority of fractures affected the inferior wall (60.3%), with the medial walls being the next most frequently affected (19.6%). The most common cause of injury was assault (59.3%), and the second most common was falls (24%). Commotio retinae was observed in 20.1% of orbital fracture cases and was most associated with injuries caused by assault (OR=5.22, p<0.001) and least associated with those caused by falls (OR=0.06, p<0.001). Eye movement restrictions were more common in central than peripheral commotio (OR=3.79, p=0.015) and with medial wall fractures than fractures to other orbital walls (OR=7.16, p<0.001). The odds of commotio were not found to be higher in patients with multi-walled orbital fractures than in those with single-walled fractures (p=0.967).
CONCLUSIONS: In the study population, assault was the most common cause of orbital fractures and resulted in commotio retinae than other causes. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the likelihood of commotio retinae in patients with orbital fractures resulting from assault, regardless of the extent of the patient’s injuries.
Keywords: Orbital fractures; Eye movements; Retina; Commotio and injuries
Primary graft failure (PGF) is a known complication following penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). The usual approach to treat this complication is to repeat a penetrating keratoplasty. Here, we report a case of Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) for the treatment of PGF after PKP. A patient that underwent PKP, developed PGF with persistent graft edema and very poor visual acuity despite aggressive steroid use and a proof anti-viral treatment. Three months after the initial surgery, a DMEK was performed under the PKP graft. There was progressive early corneal clearing and, by the end of the first month, the patient already had no corneal edema. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) improved to 20/40 and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) to 20/20. DMEK may be an alternative to a second PKP for the treatment of PGF. This technique is a less invasive option when compared to the standard PKP procedure.
Keywords: Corneal diseases; Corneal transplantation/adverse effects; Graft Rejection; Keratoplasty, penetrating; Descemet membrane; Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty; Eye infections, viral; Humans; Case reports
A 7-week-old male delivered by cesarean section presented with a positive serology for dengue along with preretinal and retinal hemorrhages, vitreous opacities and cotton wool spots. The patient and his mother had positive serologies for Non Structural Protein 1 (NS1) by ELISA. Retinal and vitreous findings improved over a sixteen-week period. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed preserved macular architecture. In this case report, we suggest that retinal and vitreous changes may be the ocular presenting features of vertically transmitted dengue in newborns, and that those findings may resolve with no major structural sequelae.
Keywords: Dengue; Pregnancy complication, infectious; Infectious disease transmission, vertical; Eye manifestations; Retinal hemorrhage; Vitreous hemorrhage; Human; Infant, newborn, diseases; Case reports
We present a literature review of 57 publications describing this pathology, published from the year 2012. In all these studies patients were reported to depict a slow-growing, motionless mass, which is painless at most times. All cases were managed by total excision, except for one report where adjuvant radiotherapy was applied. Among the several therapeutic strategies, the total tumor resection, preserving the tumor pseudocapsule intact, appears to be a consensus in treating the disease efficiently. Furthermore, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, including the assessment of genetic alterations, has proved to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of challenging cases. Our literature survey also suggests that an incisional biopsy before the surgery may lead to the pseudocapsule disruption, thus considerably increasing the chances of adenoma recurrence, enabling its malignization. At present, genetics studies indicate that the molecular aberrations involved in the adenoma are similar to those represented in the salivary gland tumor pathogenesis. Further, in the recurrent cases, the pathology becomes difficult to treat and multiple surgeries may be required, occasionally, leading to radical surgery treatment.
Keywords: Adenoma, pleomorphic; Lacrimal apparatus; Salivary gland neoplasms; Orbit; Biopsy, fine-needle
PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare four depths of manual dissection for the preparation of Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty lamellae.
METHODS: Eye bank corneas were randomized into four groups according to dissection depths: Pachy-100 (incision depth = central corneal thickness-safety margin of 100 µm), Pachy-50 (safety margin of 50 µm), Pachy-0 (no safety margin), and Pachy+50 (incision depth = central corneal thickness + 50 µm). All endothelial lamellae were prepared using a standardized method of manual dissection (Pachy-DSEK). The central, paracentral (3.0-mm zone), and peripheral (6.0-mm zone) lamella thicknesses and incision depths were measured by optical coherence tomography. The 3.0-mm and 6.0-mm zone central-to-peripheral thickness ratios were calculated.
RESULTS: Endothelial perforation occurred only in the Pachy+50 group (n=3, 30%). Central lamella’s thickness in Pachy-100, Pachy-50, Pachy-0, and Pachy+50 groups measured 185 ± 42 µm, 122 ± 29 µm, 114 ± 29 µm, and 58 ± 31 µm, respectively (p<0.001). The overall 3.0- and 6.0-mm C/P ratios were 0.97 ± 0.06 and 0.92 ± 0.14, respectively. Preoperative donor characteristics were not correlated with most thickness outcomes. The planned incision depth correlated significantly with most lamella’s thickness parameters (p<0.001). The overall thickness of the lamella negatively correlated with the planned incision depth (p<0.001, r=-0.580). The best outcome was found in the Pachy-0 group, as 75% of the lamellae measured <130 µm and there was no endothelial perforation.
CONCLUSIONS: By using a standardized method of dissection, most manually prepared lamellae presented a planar shape. Setting the incision depth to the central corneal thickness did not result in endothelial perforation and a high percentage of ultrathin lamellae was achieved.
Keywords: Corneal transplantation; Lamellar keratoplasty; Corneal endothelium; Dissection; Tomography, optical coherence
PURPOSE: The emergency medical service is a fundamental part of healthcare, albeit crowded emergency rooms lead to delayed and low-quality assistance in actual urgent cases. Machine-learning algorithms can provide a smart and effective estimation of emergency patients’ volume, which was previously restricted to artificial intelligence (AI) experts in coding and computer science but is now feasible by anyone without any coding experience through auto machine learning. This study aimed to create a machine-learning model designed by an ophthalmologist without any coding experience using AutoML to predict the influx in the emergency department and trauma cases.
METHODS: A dataset of 356,611 visits at Hospital da Universidade Federal de São Paulo from January 01, 2014 to December 31, 2019 was included in the model training, which included visits/day and the international classification disease code. The training and prediction were made with the Amazon Forecast by 2 ophthalmologists with no prior coding experience.
RESULTS: The forecast period predicted a mean emergency patient volume of 216.27/day in p90, 180.75/day in p50, and 140.35/day in p10, and a mean of 7.42 trauma cases/day in p90, 3.99/day in p50, and 0.56/day in p10. In January of 2020, there were a total of 6,604 patient visits and a mean of 206.37 patients/day, which is 13.5% less than the p50 prediction. This period involved a total of 199 trauma cases and a mean of 6.21 cases/day, which is 55.77% more traumas than that by the p50 prediction.
CONCLUSIONS: The development of models was previously restricted to data scientists’ experts in coding and computer science, but transfer learning autoML has enabled AI development by any person with no code experience mandatory. This study model showed a close value to the actual 2020 January visits, and the only factors that may have influenced the results between the two approaches are holidays and dataset size. This is the first study to apply AutoML in hospital visits forecast, showing a close prediction of the actual hospital influx.
Keywords: Machine learning; Emergency services, hospital; Eye injuries; Models, statistical; Algorithms
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of unilateral corneal collagen cross-linking treatment on visual acuity and the topographic findings of the fellow untreated eye of patients who had bilateral progressive keratoconus.
METHODS: Patients with progressive keratoconus who underwent cross-linking treatment were screened retrospectively. A total of 188 untreated eyes of 188 patients whose eyes were treated unilaterally with either standard or accelerated cross-linking and refused cross-linking procedure for the fellow eye were included. Visual acuity and topographic findings of the fellow untreated eyes were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 12th, 24th, 30th, and 36th months.
RESULTS: The change over time of variables examined was similar in the untreated eyes of patients who received standard and accelerated cross-linking methods (p>0.05). At the 12th month, 136 (95.8%) untreated eyes were stable according to progression criteria. Only 4 (8%) eyes were progressive at the 24th month. No progression was observed in any of the 16 patients with a 36-month follow up.
CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the fellow untreated eyes of patients with bilateral progressive keratoconus did not have significant progression rates after unilateral cross-linking treatment.
Keywords: Corneal topography; Cross-linking reagents; Keratoconus; Photosensitizing agents; Collagen/therapeutic use; Photochemotherapy/methods; Visual acuity
PURPOSE: Dry eye disease is a multifactorial disease that is very common in clinical ophthalmic practice. The use of validated dry eye questionnaires makes it possible to screen this disease in the general population and assess the prevalence of symptoms and frequency of diagnosis, allowing early and appropriate treatment for this condition. The 5-Item Dry Eye Questionnaire (DEQ-5) is a tool that is used to assess the frequency and intensity of ocular discomfort and dryness and the frequency of tearing, which has already been validated in English and Spanish, but not in Portuguese. The aim of this study is to translate and validate the DEQ-5 to Portuguese.
METHODS: The DEQ-5 was used, consisting of five simple and direct questions: two questions for ocular discomfort, two for ocular dryness, and one for tearing. The initial translation of the English version of the questionnaire into Portuguese was conducted by two Portuguese native-speaking translators, followed by an evaluation and compilation of a single version by an interdisciplinary committee of the translated versions. Furthermore, this version was translated back into English by two individuals whose first language was English, followed by the evaluation and comparison with the original version in English by the same interdisciplinary committee. Afterwards, the final version of the questionnaire was administered to 31 volunteers at two different times.
RESULTS: The interobserver reliability of the five questions ranged from 0.584-0.813, and the Pearson correlation from 0.755-0.935, with a p-value of <0.0001. Internal consistency was α=0.887. All questions had moderate to high agreement.
CONCLUSIONS: The statistical analysis of the collected data found excellent concordance rates (moderate to high for all analyzed questions), allowing the use of the Portuguese version of DEQ-5 in research as a screening test for dry eye disease and tool used to monitor the symptoms.
Keywords: Dry eye syndromes; Diagnostic techniques, ophthalmological; Surveys and questionnaires; Translations
PURPOSE: To analyze teleconsultation at a public ophthalmic teaching hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil.
METHODS: Medical records of patients who requested ophthalmological teleconsultation between June 2020 and March 2021 were reviewed. The main outcomes included demographic data, eye disease symptoms, hypothesized diagnosis, and management. Moreover, the results of a satisfaction survey administered after the consultation were analyzed.
RESULTS: Medical records of a total of 161 patients were reviewed. The mean age was 45.98 ± 17.57 (8-90) years, and most were women (113, 70.20%). Only 57 (35.60%) of the patients had made previous follow-up visits to the hospital. The most frequent reason for consultation was the need for a new eyeglass prescription (73, 45.34%), followed by dry eye symptoms (16, 9.93%) and pterygium (13, 8.07%). Other reasons were the monitoring of previously diagnosed eye diseases, such as glaucoma, retinopathies, strabismus, and keratoconus. Regarding the satisfaction survey, 151 (93.78%) patients answered the online questionnaire. Most reported that they were satisfied with the teleconsultation (94.03%) and would participate in a future teleconsultation (90.06%).
CONCLUSION: Teleconsultation could be widely used to assist patients in public ophthalmology healthcare and teaching hospitals. Even though new eyeglass prescriptions are a frequent reason for ophthalmological appointments, patients tend to be satisfied with teleconsultation, as it also provides guidance.
Keywords: COVID-19; Telemedicine; Pandemics; Remote consultation; Eye diseases/diagnosis; Hospitals, public
PURPOSES: This study aimed to determine the association of the long-term refractive outcomes of cataract surgery with self-reported visual function obtained using Catquest-9SF.
METHODS: Patients recruited from the cataract outpatient clinic of VER MAIS Oftalmologia underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. Patients who were diagnosed with cataract with indications for phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation received the Catquest-9SF questionnaire before and after surgery at 30 days and 1 year.
RESULTS: A total of 133 patients were recruited, but 32 patients were lost to follow-up; finally, data from 101 patients (48 men, 53 women) were analyzed. The crude variance explained by the data was 69.9%, and the unexplained variance in the first contrast was 2.39 eigenvalues (>2); thus, these results are different from those expected from random data. The people separation index was 2.95 (>2), and the people trust value was 0.9 (>0.8). These indices were evaluated in the assessment of skill levels. Visual acuity was the main variable that correlated with the Catquest score.
CONCLUSIONS: The Catquest-9SF translated into Portuguese proved to be a one-dimensional and psychometrically valid tool to assess visual dysfunction in patients with cataract, and it is successful in objectively quantifying improvements after surgery. The results of this tool could be predictive and concordant of visual acuity improvement.
Keywords: Cataract extraction; Visual acuity; Surveys and questionnaires; Quality of life; Patient reported outcome measures
PURPOSE: To compare the 3-month results of treatment with 20% autologous serum or combination treatment with preservative-free artificial tears and 0.05% cyclosporine in patients with dry eye disease due to primary Sjögren’s syndrome.
METHODS: A total of 130 eyes of 65 patients with newly diagnosed dry eye disease due to primary Sjögren’s syndrome were included in the study. The patients were divided into two treatment groups: 66 eyes of 33 patients were assigned to the autologous serum treatment group, and 64 eyes of 32 patients were assigned to the combination treatment group. Schirmer test, tear break-up time and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores were recorded at pretreatment and at 3 months of treatment.
RESULTS: At 3 months of treatment, the mean Schirmer value and the mean tear break-up time were significantly higher in the combination treatment group (p<0.0001 and p=0.034, respectively). The OSDI score at 3 months was significantly lower in the autologous serum Group (p=0.004). When the two groups were evaluated separately, the improvements in Schirmer, tear break-up time test, and OSDI scores from before to after treatment were statistically significant: p<0.0001, p<0.001, and p<0.0001, respectively, for the authologus serum Group, and p<0.0001, p<0.001, and p<0.0001, respectively, for the combination treatment group.
CONCLUSIONS: In short-term treatment of dry eye disease due to primary Sjögren’s syndrome, treatment with autologous serum was significantly superior to -combination treatment with preservative-free artificial tears and 0.05% cyclosporine in terms of improvement in OSDI scores. Improvements in Schirmer test and tear break-up time scores were significantly superior in the group treated with preservative-free artificial tears and 0.05% cyclosporine.
Keywords: Sjögren’s syndrome/complications; Dry eye syndrome/etiology; Dry eye syndrome/drug therapy; Cyclosporine/therapeutic use; Lubricant eye drops
We present an unusual case of a 13-year-old male pediatric patient with a diagnosis of sphenoid sinus mucocele. The patient suffered a progressive loss of visual acuity over three months followed by a total recovery of his visual acuity after surgery. The patient presented at the emergency room complaining of progressive loss of visual acuity in his left eye which decreased to hand motion over the preceding months. Imaging studies revealed a cystic mass, suggestive of sphenoid sinus mucocele, which was causing compressive optic neuropathy and proptosis. The patient was scheduled for a sphenoidectomy and resection of the mass. Three days after surgery, the patient’s visual acuity in the left eye was 20/20, indicating complete recovery from his symptoms. We suggest that the excellent outcome in this patient may be attributable to his age. His ongoing physical development might have been the decisive factor in the recovery of his visual acuity following compressive optic neuropathy secondary to sphenoid sinus mucocele. Further research is needed to verify this proposed explanation.
Keywords: Sphenoid sinus; Mucocele; Orbital diseases; Optic nerve diseases; Nervous system diseases; Neuroimaging; Visual acuity; Child
A 60-year-old-male with refractory relapsed multiple myeloma presented with redness, pain, foreign body sensation, and blurred vision in both eyes that gradually increased after his third belantamab mafotodin infusion. Biomicroscopy revealed bilateral microcyst-like epithelial changes and epithelial crystal-like deposits, whereas in vivo confocal microscopy revealed intraepithelial and subepithelial hyperreflective deposits in corneal epithelium. Belantamab mafodotin therapy was discontinued for seven weeks due to corneal toxicity, which cleared progressively. We aim to demonstrate belantamab mafodotin-related corneal toxicity that may be detected using slit lamp and in vivo confocal biomicroscopy.
Keywords: Multiple myeloma; Belantamab mafodotin; Confocal microscopy; Cornea; Drug-related side effects and adverse reactions
PURPOSE: To describe the implementation process and the preliminary results of a surveillance system for healthcare-associated endophthalmitis.
METHODS: This is a case study of the implementation of a surveillance system for healthcare-associated endophthalmitis. The system for healthcare-associated endophthalmitis is a structured system that enables surveillance of cases of healthcare-associated endophthalmitis after intraocular procedures, developed and coordinated by the Division of Hospital Infection at the State Health Department, São Paulo, Brazil. The implementation process included a pilot phase, followed by a scaling-up phase. Data were reported monthly to the Division of Hospital Infection by participating healthcare facilities that performed intraocular procedures in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, from September 2017 to December 2019.
RESULTS: Among the 1,483 eligible healthcare facilities, 175 engaged in the study (participation rate of 11.8%), reporting 222,728 intraocular procedures performed, of which 164,207 were cataract surgery and 58,521 were intravitreal injections. The overall incidence rate of endophthalmitis was reported to be 0.05% (n=105; 80 cases after cataract surgery and 25 cases after intravitreal injections). The incidence rates for healthcare facilities ranged from 0.02% to 4.55%. Most cases were caused by gram-positive bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus spp. In 36 (46.2%) of the cases, there was no bacterial growth; no sample was collected in 28 (26.7%) cases. This system for healthcare-associated endophthalmitis enabled the identification of an outbreak of four cases of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injections.
CONCLUSION: The system for healthcare-associated endophthalmitis proved to be operationally viable and efficient for monitoring cases of endophthalmitis at the state level.
Keywords: Epidemiological monitoring; Endophthalmitis; Delivery of healthcare; Health surveys; Ophthalmologic surgical procedures
Purpose: To compare the long-term ocular findings of children that were operated of congenital cataract before the age of two and that received an intraoperative intracameral triamcinolone injection or used postoperative oral prednisolone to modulate ocular inflammation.
Methods: All patients who had previously participated in a clinical trial that analyzed the 1-year surgical outcomes of congenital cataract surgery utilizing intracameral triamcinolone (study group) or oral prednisolone (control group) were eligible to participate in this prospective cohort research. Patients’ medical records were reviewed, and the children underwent a complete ophthalmologic exam on final follow-up. Biomicroscopic findings, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, the need for additional surgical interventions, and findings compatible with glaucoma were the primary end measures.
Results: Twenty-six eyes (26 patients) were included (study group = 11 eyes; control group = 15 eyes). The mean follow-up was 8.2 ± 1.2 years and 8.1 ± 1.7 years in the study and control groups, respectively (p=0.82). All eyes presented a centered intraocular lens. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with regards to the presence of posterior synechia (p=0.56), intraocular pressure (p=0.49), or central corneal thickness (p=0.21). None of the eyes fulfilled the glaucoma diagnostic criteria, presented secondary visual axis obscuration, or were reoperated.
Conclusion: The long-term ocular findings of children that underwent congenital cataract surgery and received an intraoperative intracameral triamcinolone injection were similar to those that used postoperative oral prednisolone to modulate ocular inflammation. This suggests that intracameral triamcinolone may substitute oral prednisolone in congenital cataract surgery, facilitating the postoperative treatment regimen and compliance.
Keywords: Congenital cataract; Triamcinolone; Prednisolone; Steroids; Postoperative complications; Children; Cataract
Purpose: To evaluate the quality of life and stress level related to visual function following pediatric cataract surgery in a Brazilian public hospita
Methods: This prospective study analyzed children aged 6-14 years old who underwent cataract surgery. The Childhood Stress Scale and Children’s Visual Function Questionnaire (CVFQ) were used to assess stress levels and quality of life, respectively. Both instruments were applied by two psychologists beforeand after the surgery. Eye examination was performed by two ophthalmologists. Preoperative and postoperative data were compared.
Results: In total, 23 children (32 eyes) were enrolled in the study, of which 9 had bilateral cataracts. The average age group at the time of surgery was 9.65 ± 2.26 (6-14) years old. One month after the surgery, the spherical equivalent was -0.90 ± 1.66D, and the corrected distance visual acuity was 0.13 ± 0.10 (0-0.3) LogMAR in bilateral cases and 0.50 ± 0.39 (0-1.3) LogMAR in unilateral cases (p<0.01). According to the Childhood Stress Scale, 77.7% of the bilateral cases and 57.1% of the unilateral cases had stable stress levels, and 34.7% of the children improved their stress level. The analysis of the CVFQ was based on scores for general health, general vision health, competence, personality, and treatment. After cataract surgery, 78.2% of the patients had improved or maintained CVFQ scores in the general health domain; 82.6%, general vision health; 95.6%, competence; 56.5%, personality; and 78.2%, treatment.
Conclusion: Pediatric cataract surgery improves the visual function and the quality of life even in patients undergoing surgical procedures, without increasing the stress levels.
Keywords: Cataract; Cataract extraction; Adverse childhood experiences; Quality of life; Child
Purpose: The possible variability in diagnostic test results is a statistical feature of dry eye disease patients. The clinician should consider tear film variations over time since the timing of tear film measurements is important for proper diagnosis. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the inter-week variation of osmolarity measurement in healthy and dry eye disease participants.
Methods: Based on the Dry Eye Workshop II (DEWS-II) diagnostic methodology report criteria, a battery of tests (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] questionnaire, breakup time, and corneal staining) was administered to rule out the presence of dry eye disease. A total of 40 qualified volunteers were recruited into two groups: with only 20 healthy and 20 dry eye disease participants. The inter-week variation of osmolarity in the two groups was measured using a TearLab osmometer in two sessions one-week apart. The differences between the results were calculated.
Results: There were no significant differences in osmolarity between the two sessions for either the healthy (paired t-test; p=0.085) or dry eye disease (paired t-test; p=0.093) participants. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between the means and differences in either session on healthy (Pearson correlation: r=0.020; p=0.935) or dry eye disease (Pearson correlation: r=-0.022; p=0.928) participants. In session 1, there was a significant difference in osmolarity values between groups (unpaired t-test; p=0.001), but no difference was found in session 2 (unpaired t-test; p=0.292).
Conclusions: The present study discovered no inter-week variation in the tear film osmolarity of healthy and dry eye disease participants classified based on the DEWS-II criteria.
Keywords: Osmolar concentration; Tears; Dry eye syndromes; Diagnostic techniques, ophthalmological
A 69-year-old female was referred with sudden unilateral painless decreased vision that began 2 days after uncomplicated cataract surgery in the left eye. Visual acuity was hand motion and biomicroscopy showed a mild anterior chamber reaction, no hypopyon, and an intraocular lens that had been placed within the capsular bag. A dilated fundus examination revealed optic disk edema, widespread deep and superficial intraretinal hemorrhages, retinal ischemia, and macular edema. A cardiological evaluation was normal and thrombophilia tests were negative. After surgery, prophylactic vancomycin (1mg/0.1ml) had been injected intracamerally. The patient was diagnosed with hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis likely secondary to vancomycin hypersensitivity. Recognition of this entity is important to ensure early treatment and the use of intracameral vancomycin in the fellow eye should be avoided after cataract surgery.
Keywords: Antibiotic prophylaxis; Cataract removal; Drug hypersensitivity; Macular edema; Retinal vasculitis
Purpose: Stargardt-like phenotype has been described as associated with pathogenic variants besides the ABCA4 gene. This study aimed to describe four cases with retinal appearance of Stargardt disease phenotypes and unexpected molecular findings.
Methods: This report reviewed medical records of four patients with macular dystrophy and clinical features of Stargardt disease. Ophthalmic examination, fundus imaging, and next-generation sequencing were performed to evaluate pathogenic variants related to the phenotypes.
Results: Patients presented macular atrophy and pigmentary changes suggesting Stargardt disease. The phenotypes of the two patients were associated with autosomal dominant inheritance pattern genes (RIMS1 and CRX) and in the other two patients were associated with recessive dominant inheritance pattern genes (CRB1 and RDH12) with variants predicted to be pathogenic.
Conclusion: Macular dystrophies may have phenotypic similarities to Stargardt-like phenotype associated with other genes besides the classic ones.
Keywords: Stargardt disease; Genetic association studies; Phenotype; Inheritance patterns; High-throughput nucleotide sequencing; Macular degeneration; Retinal dystrophies; Genetic diseases
This report presents the optical coherence tomography findings and a new NEU1 mutation in bilateral macular cherry-red spot syndrome associated with sialidosis type 1. A 19-year-old patient with a macular cherry-red spot underwent metabolic and genetic analyses supported by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Fundus examination revealed bilateral macular cherry-red spot. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed increased hyperreflectivity in the retinal inner layers and the photoreceptor layer in the foveal region. The genetic analysis detected a new NEU1 mutation, which caused type I sialidosis. In cases with a macular cherry-red spot, sialidosis should be included in the differential diagnosis, and NEU1 mutation should be screened. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography alone is not sufficient in the differential diagnosis because childhood metabolic diseases may exhibit similar signs.
Keywords: Mucolipidosis; Myoclonus; Sialidosis type 1; Tomography; optical coherence; Gene NEU1.
The peripherin gene (PRPH2) mutation is associated with photoreceptor cell dysfunction as well as in several inherited retinal dystrophies. The PRPH2 mutation c.582-1G>A is a rare variant reported in retinitis pigmentosa and pattern dystrophy. Here Case 1 was of a 54-year-old woman with bilateral atrophy of the perifoveal retinal pigmentary epithelium and choriocapillaris with central foveolar respect. Autofluorescence and fluorescein angiography revealed perifoveal atrophy of the retinal pigmentary epithelium with an annular window effect without the “dark choroid” sign. Case 2 (mother of Case 1) presented with extensive atrophy of the retinal pigmentary epithelium and choriocapillaris. PRPH2 was evaluated and the c.582-1G>A mutation was identified in heterozygosity. An advanced adult-onset benign concentric annular macular dystrophy diagnosis was thereby proposed. The c.582-1G>A mutation is poorly known and not present in all common genomic databases. This case report is the first one to report a c.582-1G>A mutation associated with benign concentric annular macular dystrophy.
Keywords: PRPH2 gene; Mutation; Macular degeneration; Stargardt disease.
Purpose: This study aimed to assess and interpret how vitreoretinal surgeons use surgical videos available on social media as complementary learning tools to improve, review, or update their abilities, considering their different levels of expertise.
Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, an online survey was sent to vitreoretinal specialists and fellows.
Results: This survey included 258 participants, of whom 53.88% had been in practice for >10 years (senior surgeons), 29.07% between 4 and 10 years (young surgeons), and 17.05% for <3 years (surgeons in training). Retinal surgical videos available on social media were used by 98.84% of the participants (95% confidence interval, 97.52%-100%). YouTube (91%) was the most common source of videos, and surgeons in training watched more videos on YouTube than senior surgeons. Regarding the preferred method when preparing for a procedure, 49.80% of the participants watched surgical videos available on social media, 26.27% preferred to “consult colleagues”, and 18.82% preferred to seek information in scientific articles. Participants valued the most the “image quality” (88%) and presence of “surgical tips and tricks” (85%).
Conclusion: Surgical videos can provide benefits in acquiring strategic skills, such as decision-making, surgical planning, and situational awareness. Retina surgeons used them as teaching aids regardless of their level of expertise, despite being relatively more valuable to surgeons in training or young surgeons.
Keywords: Learning; Education, distance; Social media; Vitreoretinal surgery; Surgeons; Surveys & questionnaires
A 42-year-old woman presented with bilateral proptosis, chemosis, leg pain, and vision loss. Orbital, chorioretinal, and multi-organ involvement of Erdheim-Chester disease, a rare non-Langerhans histiocytosis, with a negative BRAF mutation was diagnosed based on clinical, radiological, and pathological findings. Interferon-alpha-2a (IFNα-2a) was started, and her clinical condition improved. However, 4 months later, she had vision loss with a history of IFNα-2a cessation. The same therapy was administered, and her clinical condition improved. The Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare chronic histiocytic proliferative disease that requires a multidisciplinary approach and can be fatal if left untreated because of multisystemic involvements.
Keywords: Hemic and lymphatic diseases; Histiocytosis; Histiocytosis, non-Langerhans cell; Erdheim-Chester disease; Retinal diseases; Orbital diseases; Humans; Case reports.
Purpose: To compare the differences between the apparent and actual chord µ.
Methods: In this prospective, comparative, non-randomized, and non-interventional study, imaging examinations using Pentacam and the HD Analyzer were performed in the same room under the same scotopic conditions. The inclusion criteria were patients aged 21-71 years, able to provide informed consent, myopia up to 4D, and anterior topographic astigmatism up to 1D. Patients using contact lenses, those with previous eye diseases or surgeries, corneal opacities, corneal tomographic changes, or suspected keratoconus were excluded.
Results: Altogether, 116 eyes of 58 patients were analyzed. The patients’ mean age was 30.69 (±7.85) years. In the correlation analyses, Pearson’s correlation coefficient of 0.647 indicates a moderate positive linear relationship between apparent and actual chord µ. The mean actual and apparent chord µ were 226.21 ± 128.53 and 278.66 ± 123.90 µm, respectively, with a mean difference of 52.45 µm (p=0.01). The analysis of mean pupillary diameter resulted in 5.76 mm using the HD Analyzer and 3.31 mm using the Pentacam.
Conclusions: We found a correlation between the two measurement devices, and even though we found considerable differences, both can be used in daily practice. Given their differences, we should respect their peculiarities as well.
Keywords: Optical imaging; Visual perception; Pupil; Anterior eye segment; Cornea; Diagnostic techniques, ophthalmological
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the pre-sence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in the ocular surface of individuals clinically suspected of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and determine the accuracy of different approaches of molecular testing on the ocular surface based on the nasopharyngeal positivity status for COVID-19.
Methods: A total of 152 individuals with suspected COVID-19 symptoms who simultaneously underwent nasopharyngeal and two different tear film collection techniques for quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were included. Tears were collected and randomized: one eye had the filter strip for the Schirmer test and the contralateral eye had conjunctival swab/cytology in the inferior fornix. All patients underwent slit lamp biomicroscopy. The accuracy of various ocular surface collection techniques used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was determined.
Results: Of the 152 patients enrolled in the study, 86 (56.6%) had COVID-19 confirmed by nasopharyngeal PCR. Both tear film collection techniques detected viral particles: the Schirmer test was positive in 16.3% (14/86) and the conjunctival swab/cytology in 17.4% (15/86), with no statistically significant differences. No positive ocular tests were found among those with negative nasopharyngeal PCR tests. The overall agreement of the ocular tests was 92.7%, and in combination, the sensitivity would increase to 23.2%. The mean cycle threshold values in the nasopharyngeal, Schirmer, and conjunctival swab/cytology tests were 18.2 ± 5.3, 35.6 ± 1.4, and 36.4 ± 3.9, respectively. Compared with the nasopharyngeal test, the Schirmer (p=0.001) and conjunctival swab/cytology (p<0.001) tests had significantly different Ct values.
Conclusion: The Schirmer (16.3%) and conjunctival swab (17.4%) tests were comparably capable of detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the ocular surface by RT-PCR accurately based on nasopharyngeal status and demonstrated indistinct sensitivity and specificity. Simultaneous specimen sampling and processing from the nasopharyngeal, Schirmer, and conjunctival swab/cytology tests demonstrated significantly lower viral load in both ocular surface approaches than in the nasopharyngeal test. Ocular manifestations detected by slit lamp biomicroscopy were not associated with ocular RT-PCR positivity.
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Conjunctiva; Tears; Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; RNA; viral.
Purpose: Microperimetry has been used for several years as a form of visual function testing in patients with retinal diseases. Normal microperimetry values obtained with microperimeter MP-3 have not yet been fully published, and baseline values for topographic macular sensitivity and correlations with age and sex are needed to establish degrees of impairment. This study aimed to determine values for light sensitivity thresholds and fixation stability using the MP-3 in healthy individuals.
Methods: Thirty-seven healthy volunteers (age, 28-68 years), underwent full-threshold microperimetry using a 4-2 (fast) staircase strategy with the standard Goldmann III stimulus size and 68 test points positioned identically to those in the Humphrey Field Analyzer 10-2 test grid. The fixation stability was simultaneously recorded during the microperimetry test. The relationship between global sensitivity and age was calculated using linear regression analysis.
Results: Microperimetry was performed on 37 participants (74 eyes). The global mean sensitivity was 29.01 ± 1.44 (range, 26-31) dB. The mean central sensitivity at 2° measured by the MP-3 was 28.5 ± 1.77 dB in the right eye (OD) and 28.75 ± 1.98 dB in the left eye (OS). The total median fixation stability values within 2° and 4° were 80% and 96%, respectively. The linear regression analysis also revealed an age-related global sensitivity decline per year of -0.051 dB ± 0.018 (OD) and -0.078 dB ± 0.021 (OS).
Conclusions: Microperimetry performed with the MP-3 allows for an automatic, accurate, and topography-specific examination of retinal sensitivity thresholds. The results of this study provide a normal and age-matched database of MP-3 microperimetry.
Keywords: Visual fields; Visual field tests; Retina; Microperimetry; Age.
Purpose: To explore the therapeutic effects of orthokeratology lens combined with 0.01% atropine eye drops on juvenile myopia.
Methods: A total of 340 patients with juvenile myopia (340 eyes) treated from 2018 to December 2020 were divided into the control group (170 cases with 170 eyes, orthokeratology lens) and observation group (170 cases with 170 eyes, orthokeratology lens combined with 0.01% atropine eye drops). The best-corrected distance visual acuity, best-corrected near visual acuity, diopter, axial length, amplitude of accommodation, bright pupil diameter, dark pupil diameter, tear-film lipid layer thickness, and tear break-up time were measured before treatment and after 1 year of treatment. The incidence of adverse reactions was observed.
Results: Compared with the values before treatment, the spherical equivalent degree was significantly improved by 0.22 (0.06, 0.55) D and 0.40 (0.15, 0.72) D in the observation and control groups after the treatment, respectively (p<0.01). After the treatment, the axial length was significantly increased by (0.15 ± 0.12) mm and (0.24 ± 0.11) mm in the observation and control groups, respectively, (p<0.01). After the treatment, the amplitude of accommodation significantly declined in the observation group and was lower than that in the control group, whereas both bright and dark pupil diameters significantly increase and were larger than those in the control group (p<0.01). After the treatment, the tear-film lipid layer thickness and tear break-up time significantly declined in the two groups (p<0.01).
Conclusions: Orthokeratology lens combined with 0.01% atropine eye drops can synergistically enhance the control effect on juvenile myopia with high safety.
Keywords: Atropine; Myopia; Orthokeratologic procedures; Axial length; eye; Corneal topography; Visual acuity; Contact lenses.
Purpose: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is extremely uncommon in adults with an autoimmune pathophysiology. Because of the rarity of the syndrome, international recognition of opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome needs to be improved urgently. Therefore, the goal of this study was to raise the awareness of the opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome and help doctors in better diagnosing and using immunotherapy.
Methods: We present a case study of an adult-onset case of idiopathic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome characterized by spontaneous arrhythmic multidirectional conjugate eye movements, myoclonus, ataxia, sleep disorders, and intense fear. Additionally, we conduct a literature search and summarize the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome.
Results: Immunotherapies successfully treated the patient’s opsoclonus, myoclonus, and ataxia. Further, the article also includes an update summary of the opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome.
Conclusion: The prevalence of residual sequela in adults with opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome is low. Early diagnosis and treatment may result in a better prognosis. Furthermore, combined immunotherapy is expected to reduce the incidence of refractory and reoccurring opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome.
Keywords: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome/diagnosis; Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome/drug therapy; Immunotherapy/methods; Human
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the classification performance of pretrained convolutional neural network models or architectures using fundus image dataset containing eight disease labels.
Methods: A publicly available ocular disease intelligent recognition database has been used for the diagnosis of eight diseases. This ocular disease intelligent recognition database has a total of 10,000 fundus images from both eyes of 5,000 patients for the following eight diseases: healthy, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, cataract, age-related macular degeneration, hypertension, myopia, and others. Ocular disease classification performances were investigated by constructing three pretrained convolutional neural network architectures including VGG16, Inceptionv3, and ResNet50 models with adaptive moment optimizer. These models were implemented in Google Colab, which made the task straight-forward without spending hours installing the environment and supporting libraries. To evaluate the effectiveness of the models, the dataset was divided into 70%, 10%, and 20% for training, validation, and testing, respectively. For each classification, the training images were augmented to 10,000 fundus images.
Results: ResNet50 achieved an accuracy of 97.1%; sensitivity, 78.5%; specificity, 98.5%; and precision, 79.7%, and had the best area under the curve and final score to classify cataract (area under the curve = 0.964, final score = 0.903). By contrast, VGG16 achieved an accuracy of 96.2%; sensitivity, 56.9%; specificity, 99.2%; precision, 84.1%; area under the curve, 0.949; and final score, 0.857.
Conclusions: These results demonstrate the ability of the pretrained convolutional neural network architectures to identify ophthalmological diseases from fundus images. ResNet50 can be a good architecture to solve problems in disease detection and classification of glaucoma, cataract, hypertension, and myopia; Inceptionv3 for age-related macular degeneration, and other disease; and VGG16 for normal and diabetic retinopathy.
Keywords: Neural networks; computer; Deep-learning; Image processing; computer-assisted; VGG16; Inceptionv3; ResNet50; Fundus oculi; Eye diseases.
Purpose: This study aimed to report an experiment designed to determine anatomical changes in porcine corneas following placement of a novel polymer implant into the cornea.
Methods: An ex vivo porcine eye model was used. A novel type I collagen-based vitrigel implant (6 mm in diameter) was shaped with an excimer laser on the posterior surface to create three planoconcave shapes. Implants were inserted into a manually dissected stromal pocket at a depth of approximately 200 µm. Three treatment groups were defined: group A (n=3), maximal ablation depth 70 µm; Group B (n=3), maximal ablation depth 64 µm; and group C (n=3), maximal ablation depth 104 µm, with a central hole. A control group (D, n=3) was included, in which a stromal pocket was created butbiomaterial was not inserted. Eyes were evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and corneal tomography.
Results: Corneal tomography showed a trend for a decreased mean keratometry in all four groups. Optical coherence tomography showed corneas with implants placed within the anterior stroma and visible flattening, whereas the corneas in the control group did not qualitatively change shape.
Conclusions: The novel planoconcave biomaterial implant described herein could reshape the cornea in an ex vivo model, resulting in the flattening of the cornea. Further studies are needed using in vivo animal models to confirm such findings.
Keywords: Cornea; Corneal surgery, laser; Corneal topography; Corneal stroma; Prostheses and implants; Lasers excimer; Biocompatible materials; Animals; Swine
Purpose: To longitudinally compare isolated structural parameters obtained using RTVue optical coherence tomography in patients with glaucoma and suspected glaucoma with stable visual fields.
Methods: All patients were required to have a reliable SITA Standard 24-2 Humphrey Visual Field test. Visual field stability was defined as having <5 points with p<5% and/or having no points with p<1% and/or p<0.05% in the glaucoma progression analysis comparison graph. Furthermore, the glaucoma assessment strategy was used in optical coherence tom ography.
Results: The study included 75 eyes from 75 patients, 43 of which had glaucoma and 32 had suspected glaucoma. The mean visual field intervals were 29.57 ± 9.65 months between the first and third tests. No visual field parameter variations (mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, and visual field index) and no retinal nerve fiber layer or optic disk parameter variations between the first and third tests were observed (p>0.05 for all), and no retinal nerve fiber layer parameter variations throughout the study were observed, except for optic disk parameters presenting with cup volume changes (p=0.004). However, ganglion complex cells presented a progressively decreased average ganglion cell complex parameter, with a variability of -0.98% ± 3.71% (p=0.04) between the first and third tests. By contrast, the global loss volume progressively increased throughout the study, with a variability of 14.71% ± 44.52% (p=0.04) between the first and third tests. The inferior ganglion cell complex parameter was significantly decreased between the first and third tests (p=0.02).
Conclusion:The present findings suggest that patients with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma with stable visual fields may present structural ganglion complex cell progression as assessed using RTVue optical coherence tomography.
Keywords: Imaging diagnosis/methods; Optical disk/pathology; Nervous fibers/pathology; Glaucoma/diagnosis; Tomography, optical coherence
Purpose: To evaluate the influence of atmospheric pressure changes on the behavior of intraocular pressure
of healthy military individuals-students and instructors of the National Navy’s Diving & Rescue School at the “ARC BOLÍVAR” naval base-during a simulated immersion in the hyperbaric chamber of the Naval Hospital of Cartagena.
Methods: A descriptive exploratory study was performed. The intraocular pressure was measured at different atmospheric pressures during 60-min sessions in the hyperbaric chamber while breathing compressed air. The maximum simulated depth was 60 feet. Participants were students and instructors of the Naval Base’s Diving and Rescue Department.
Results: A total of 48 eyes from 24 divers were studied, of which 22 (91.7%) were male. The mean age of the participants was 30.6 (SD=5.5) years, ranging from 23 to 40. No participant had a history of glaucoma or ocular hypertension. The mean base intraocular pressure at sea level was 14 mmHg, which decreased to 13.1 mmHg (decreased by 1.2 mmHg) at 60 feet deep (p=0.0012). However, during the safety stop at 30 feet, the mean IOP kept decreasing until reaching 11.9 mmHg (p<0.001). By the end of the session, the mean intraocular pressure reached 13.1 mmHg, which is inferior and statistically significant when compared with the intraocular pressure base mean (p=0.012).
Conclusions: In healthy individuals, the intraocular pressure decreases when reaching a depth of 60 feet (2.8 absolute atmosphere pressure) and it decreases even more during ascension at 30 feet. Measurements at both points were significantly different when compared with base intraocular pressure. The final intraocular pressure was lower than the baseline intraocular pressure, suggesting a residual and prolonged effect of the atmospheric pressure on intraocular pressure.
Keywords: Atmospheric pressure; Tonometry; Intraocular pressure; Ocular hypertension; Glaucoma; Military personnel
Purposes: To assess the efficacy of botulinum toxin A injection in the treatment of strabismus in patients with neurological impairment and evaluate the factors associated with treatment success.
Methods: The study included 50 patients with strabismus and neurological impairment. In all children, botulinum toxin injection was performed into the appropriate extraocular muscle. The relationship between demographic features, clinical characteristics, and treatment success were analyzed.
Results: In the study group, 34 patients had esotropia, and 16 patients had exotropia. As neurological problems, 36 patients had cerebral palsy, and 14 had hydrocephalus. The average follow-up period was 15.3 ± 7.3 months. The mean number of injections was 1.4 ± 0.6. The mean angle of deviation was 42.5 ± 13.2 PD before the treatment, which decreased to 12.8 ± 11.9 PD after the treatment. Successful motor alignment (orthotropia within 10 PD) was achieved in 60% of the patients. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that esotropic misalignment and shorter duration of strabismus was significantly associated with treatment success in the study group. Patients with esotropia and lower angles of misalignment were more likely to be treated with a single injection.
Conclusion: The use of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of strabismus in children with neurological impairment is a good alternative to conventional surgical therapy with a lower risk of overcorrection. The treatment outcome is better in esodeviations and shorter duration of strabismus, implying an advantage of early treatment.
Keywords: Strabismus; Botulinum toxin; Neurological manifestations; Nervous system diseases; Cerebral palsy; Hydrocephalus; Children
Purpose: To report the clinical findings, treatments, and outcomes in a series of patients with vitreous metastasis from cutaneous melanoma.
Methods: This single-center, retrospective, interventional case series included patients with biopsy-confirmed vitreous metastasis from cutaneous melanoma diagnosed between 1997 and 2020. Standard 23- or 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed for diagnostic sampling. Sclerotomies were treated with double or triple freeze-thaw cryotherapy. Perioperative intravitreal injections of melphalan (32 µg/0.075 mL) were administered, when indicated. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and systemic and ocular treatment responses were reported.
Results: Five eyes of five patients with unilateral vitreous metastasis from cutaneous melanoma were identified. The median age at diagnosis was 84 (range, 37-88) years. The median follow-up after ophthalmic diagnosis was 28 (8.5-36) months; one patient did not have a follow-up. The initial visual acuity ranged from 20/30 to hand motions. Baseline clinical findings included pigmented or non-pigmented cellular infiltration of the vitreous (5/5), anterior segment (4/5), and retina (3/5). Four patients had secondary glaucoma. Systemic therapy included checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy (n=3, all with partial/complete response), systemic chemotherapy (n=2), surgical resection (n=3), and radiation (n=2). The median time from primary diagnosis to vitreous metastasis was 2 (2-15) years. One patient had an active systemic disease at the time of vitreous metastasis. The final visual acuity ranged from 20/40 to no light perception. Ophthalmic treatment included vitrectomy in all five patients, intravitreal administration of melphalan in three, and intravitreal administration of methotrexate in one. One patient required enucleation, and histopathology revealed extensive invasion by melanoma cells.
Conclusions: Vitreous metastasis from cutaneous melanoma can present as a diffuse infiltration of pigmented or non-pigmented cells into the vitreous and may be misdiagnosed as uveitis. Diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy and periodic intravitreal chemotherapy may be indicated.
Keywords: Melanoma; Eye neoplasms; Skin neoplasms; Neoplasm metastasis; Vitreous body; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; Immunotherapy; Intravitreal injections; Melphalan; Methotrexate
Purpose: Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA) was proposed as a promising option for the treatment of acquired lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion. However, this effect was not confirmed by quantitative assessments. This study aimed to assess the effect of hyaluronic acid on the treatment of acquired lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion.
Methods: Eight patients with acquired lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion (13 eyelids) were treated with a single 1 mL injection of hyaluronic acid in the preseptal area of the lower eyelid. Evaluation of symptoms and biomicroscopic exam was performed before and 30 days after hyaluronic acid injection. Quantitative analysis of the lower eyelid position (with and without lid traction) was determined before an