We report an unusual case of fulminant endogenous Clostridium septicum panophthalmitis. A 74-year-old male patient presented with sudden amaurosis in the right eye, which in a few hours, evolved into an orbital cellulitis, endophthalmitis, anterior segment ischemia, and secondary perforation of the eye. A complete diagnostic study, which included cranial and orbital contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, blood cultures, and complete blood work, were performed. No causal agent was identified. Clostridium septicum infection caused fulminant gaseous panophthalmitis. Despite broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, evisceration of the eyeball was necessary. The extension study showed a colon adenocarcinoma as the origin of the infection. Clostridium septicum panophthalmitis is a rare but aggressive orbital infection. This infection warrants the identification of a neoplastic process in the gastrointestinal tract in many cases not previously described.
Keywords: Panophthalmitis; Adenocarcinoma; Colonic neoplasms; Clostridium septicum
We report a case of a young woman presenting with decreased vision in the right eye. One month earlier, she developed severe preeclampsia at 22 weeks of gestation and the pregnancy was terminated. Fundus examination revealed cotton wool spots and hard exudates in the macula bilaterally, with a yellow spot at the center of the fovea in the right eye. Optic coherence tomography showed a full thickness macular hole with elevated cystoid edges in the right eye. The patient was diagnosed with macular hole secondary to preeclampsia and followed up for spontaneous closure. One month after the first visit, surgical intervention was suggested due to declining vision. Three months later, the patient agreed to surgery. She underwent pars plana vitrectomy with a temporal inverted internal limiting membrane flap and C3F8 endotamponade, which provided anatomic and visual improvement.
Keywords: Retinal perforations; Vitrectomy; Vitreoretinal surgery; Pre-eclampsia; Tomography; optical coherence.
Ocular sporotrichosis involving adnexa can present in 4 types: granulomatous conjunctivitis, dacryocystitis, Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome, and bulbar conjunctivitis. The incidence of ocular sporotrichosis has increased in regions with high incidence rates of sporotrichosis. We present a series of three cases of ocular involvement by the fungus Sporothrix species, including its manifestations, approaches, and relevance in areas where sporotrichosis has considerable incidence rates.
Keywords: Eye infections; fungal; Conjunctivitis; Sporotrichosis/drug therapy; Sporothrix/isolation & purification; Itraconazole/therapeutic use.
It is estimated that lymphatic malformations in children account for 6% of all benign vascular malformations. New medical therapies have been developed for the management of lymphatic orbital disease. The purpose of this article was to describe a clinical case of orbital venolymphatic malformation in a 10-year-old boy, causing proptosis and palpebral edema. The lesion was initially treated with local sclerotherapy. However, the lesion relapsed, and was successfully treated with oral sirolimus. Prospective studies are warranted to determine the appropriate dose and extend the indications of sirolimus in these patients.
Keywords: Lymphatic abnormalities/drug therapy; Orbit/pathology; Exophthalmos; Magnetic resonance imaging; Sirolimus/therapeutic use; Child.
This is a case report involving a 56-year-old male patient with a history of pars plana vitrectomy due to a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the right eye that resulted in the implantation of a drainage device after the patient developed secondary glaucoma. Two years after the device’s implantation, the patient was referred to our care as his visual acuity had decreased to 20/200 (1.00 LogMAR). At the fundus evaluation, a choroidal amelanotic elevation was observed at the upper temporal equator, and a potential diagnosis was made of amelanotic choroidal melanoma. The ultrasound exam visualized the patient’s implanted superotemporal justabulbar drainage device, which revealed a transscleral communication from the plate fibrocapsular’s draining space to the suprachoroidal space (fistula). The ultrasound also revealed a focal pocket of choroidal detachment in the patient’s superotemporal region, simulating an amelanotic choroidal melanoma. A new pars plana vitrectomy was performed to remove the internal limiting membrane without repercussions at the fistula site. The patient’s recovery progressed well, and he regained a visual acuity of 20/70 (0.55 LogMAR). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of this condition.
Keywords: Vitrectomy/adverse effects; Retinal detachment; Glaucoma; Glaucoma drainage implants; Choroid neoplasms; Melanoma; Fluorescein angiography; Dexamethasone; Humans; Case report.
The authors report full-field electroretinogram and optical coherence tomography findings of intravitreal melphalan retinal toxicity. An 18-month-old girl with unilateral group D retinoblastoma was evaluated with light-adapted 3 full-field electroretinogram protocol and optical coherence tomography (I-Stand optical coherence tomography, Optovue) after treatment with intravitreal melphalan for active vitreous seeds. After the third injection, the child developed retinal pigment epithelial changes near the injection site. The photopic response of the full-field electroretinogram standard flash cones showed a decrease in amplitude responses of waves a and b in the affected eye compared to the contralateral eye. Optical coherence tomography showed loss of photoreceptors and outer nuclear layers in the affected eye. Melphalan toxicity is dose-dependent, and despite its treatment benefits, it can affect vision. Our case shows an updated, in-depth retinal toxicity assessment of intravitreal melphalan in the human retina with optical coherence tomography and its correlation with electroretinogram changes.
Keywords: Retinoblastoma; Drug-related side effects and adverse reactions; Intravitreal injections; Melphalan/ toxicity.
We describe a case of a 33-years-old woman who presents with severe acute bilateral visual loss secondary to massive exudative hypertensive maculopathy as the first sign of immunoglobulin A nephropathy. The patient’s ophthalmic examination showed bilateral cotton-wool spots, flame-shaped retinal hemorrhages, diffuse narrow arterioles, optic disk edema, and exudative maculopathy. Systemic workup demonstrated a systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 240 mmHg and 160 mmHg, respectively, proteinuria, and hematuria, suggesting kidney disease as the causative condition. A kidney biopsy confirmed immunoglobulin A nephropathy. She was treated with systemic corticosteroids, antihypertensive drugs, and a single bilateral intravitreal injection of aflibercept. There was a prompt resolution of macular edema and vision improvement. Our case draws attention to the fact that severe bilateral visual loss can be the first sign of severe hypertension. Secondary causes, such as immunoglobulin A nephropathy, should be ruled out.
Keywords: Berger’s disease; Glomerulonephritis; IGA; Hypertensive retinopathy; Tomography; optical coherence; Macular edema; Hypertension; malignant; Systemic arterial hypertension.
Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic began in March 2020 and changed the healthcare system overall. The pandemic led to resource allocation changes, overloading of intensive care units, apprehensiveness of patients to seek medical care not related to COVID-19, and an abrupt reduction in all nonurgent consultations and surgeries. This study evaluated the impact on an ophthalmological emergency room for one year by assessing the correlation between societal lockdown phases and COVID-19 mortality.
Methods: An observational, retrospective study was conducted that included all patients admitted to the Ophthalmology Emergency Department between January 1, 2019, and March 28, 2021. The visits were classified into prepandemic and pandemic groups that were then compared.
Results: In the prepandemic period, the hospital registered a total of 71,485 visits with a mean of 194.78 ± 49.74 daily visits. In the pandemic group, there was a total of 41,791 visits with a mean of 114.18 ± 43.12 daily visits, which was a 41.4% decrease. A significant decrease (16.4 p<0.001) was observed in the prevalence of acute conjunctivitis, and a significant increase (6.4%; p<0.01) was observed in the prevalence of corneal foreign body disorders. A negative correlation was identified between the COVID-19 death rate and the ophthalmological inflow rates.
Conclusion: This one-year analysis showed a reduction of 41.4% in emergency department visits and a significant decrease in infectious conditions. A change in hygiene habits and social distancing could explain this reduction, and the increased prevalence of trauma consultations highlighted the need for preventive and educative measures during these types of restrictive periods.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Coronavirus infections; Pandemics; Emergency medical services; Ocular trauma.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the white-to-white distance measurements of two devices (IOL Master 500 and Atlas corneal topographer) commonly used in clinical practice to determine if they were interchangeable. Providing information on instrument interchangeability could eliminate several unnecessary tests and consequently reduce the economic burden for the patient and society.
Methods: In this prospective, comparative case series, the white-to-white distance was measured by independent examiners using the Atlas topographer (Carl Zeiss Meditec) and the IOL Master 500 (Carl Zeiss Meditec). One eye each of 184 patients was tested. Statistical analyses were performed using a paired t-test, Pearson correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis to compare the measurement methods.
Results: The mean white-to-white distance measurements with the Atlas topographer and the IOL Master 500 were 12.20 ± 0.44 mm and 12.12 ± 0.41 mm, respectively (p<0.001). The mean white-to-white difference between the two devices was 0.07 mm (95% confidence interval of mean difference: 0.04-0.11 mm). The Pearson correlation coefficient between the two devices was 0.85 (p<0.0001). The 95% limits of agreement between the two devices were -0.38 mm to 0.53 mm.
Conclusions: The Atlas topographer and IOL Master 500 can be used interchangeably with respect to white-to-white distance measurements, as the range of differences is unlikely to affect clinical practice and decision making.
Keywords: Corneal topography; Axial length; eye; Diagnostic techniques; Ophthalmological; Ophthalmological surgical procedures.
Purpose: To evaluate the visual acuity of healthy and amblyopic children using sweep visual evoked potential and compare the results with those of Snellen visual acuity testing.
Methods: A total of 160 children aged 6-17 years were included in the study. Of these, 104 (65%) were aged 7-17 years old, able to verbally communicate, and did not have any systemic or ocular pathology (Group 1). Group 2 included 56 (35%) children aged 6-17 years, able to verbally communicate, and had strabismus or anisometropic amblyopia whose best corrected visual acuity was between 0.1 and 0.8. All subjects underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination and sweep visual evoked potential measurement. Demographic characteristics, ocular findings, best corrected visual acuity, and sweep visual evoked potential results were recorded.
Results: In Group 1, the mean and maximum visual acuity values for sweep visual evoked potential were lower than the Snellen best corrected visual acuity (p<0.001, for both, respectively). Bland-Altman analysis revealed that in Group 1, the distribution of the differences between the Snellen best corrected visual acuity and mean sweep visual evoked potential visual acuity was ±0.11 logMAR, and the distribution of the differences between the Snellen best corrected visual acuity and maximum sweep visual evoked potential visual acuity was ±0.023 logMAR. In Group 2, the mean and maximum sweep visual evoked potential visual acuity were lower than the Snellen best corrected visual acuity (p<0.001 and p=0.009, respectively). Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the distribution of the differences between the Snellen best corrected visual acuity and mean sweep visual evoked potential visual acuity was ±0.16 logMAR, and the distribution of the differences between the Snellen best corrected visual acuity and maximum sweep visual evoked potential visual acuity was ±0.19 logMAR.
Conclusions: Sweep visual evoked potential visual acuity measurements have comparable results with Snellen visual acuity measurements. This technique is an objective and reliable method for evaluating visual acuity in children.
Keywords: Amblyopia; Visual acuity; Visual evoked potentials; Vision tests; Humans; Child; Adolescent.
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the current practice patterns for assessing and managing upper lid ptosis among members of the Latin American and Spanish societies of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.
Methods: An e-mail was sent to invite members of both societies to participate in this anonymous web-based survey. The survey collected data on surgeons’ demographics and four other sections: upper lid ptosis preoperative evaluation, surgical preferences, postoperative management, and complications. The frequency and proportions of the responses were then statistically analyzed.
Results: The survey was responded by 354 experienced oculoplastic surgeons, 47.7% of whom generally performed more than 20 upper lid ptosis surgeries annually. Of those respondents, 244 (68.9%) routinely check for dry eye preoperatively. Less than half of the respondents (47.4%) perform the phenylephrine test for congenital or acquired ptosis. Mild upper lid ptosis was reported to be usually corrected with conjunctival mullerectomy (43.6%). Severe upper lid ptosis was reported to be usually corrected with frontalis surgery (57%), followed by anterior levator resection, mainly supramaximal resection (17.5%). In cases of severe congenital ptosis, the main reason for surgery was to alleviate the risk of amblyopia (37.3%). An anterior approach was reported to be usually (63.3%) used to manage involutional ptosis associated with dermatochalasis. Common complications comprised undercorrection after levator resection (40%) or frontalis suspension (27.5%).
Conclusions: This study reports the current practice patterns among Spanish and Latin American oculoplastic surgeons in upper lid ptosis diagnosis and treatment. Surgeons can use this study data to compare disease management with their colleagues.
Keywords: Blepharoptosis/diagnosis; Amblyopia; Phenylephrine; Surveys and Questionnaires; Demography; Surgeons.
Purpose: The study aimed to assess the anatomical and functional success rates of penetrating keratoplasty with temporary keratoprosthesis-assisted vitreoretinal surgery.
Methods: This retrospective study included 15 eyes of 14 patients, recording demographic characteristics, pre-operative anterior and posterior segment pathologies, intraoperative complications, postoperative graft status, retinal attachment, and complications and evaluating anatomical and functional success rates.
Results: The mean follow-up period was 29.8 ± 19.1(6-60) months. The most common pre-operative corneal pathology was graft abscess (7 eyes [46.7%]), and the most common diagnosis of the posterior segment was endophthalmitis (7 eyes [46.7%]). Five (33.3%) cases had visual acuity between 0.001-0.08. Pre-operative endophthalmitis was diagnosed in all five cases with anatomical failure.
Conclusion: Temporary keratoprosthesis-assisted vitreoretinal surgery with penetrating keratoplasty is an effective method to treat acute/subacute pathologies of the concomitant anterior and posterior segment. However, results may vary on a case-by-case basis. Pre-operative endophthalmitis is a poor prognostic factor for long-term success.
Keywords: Keratoplasty; penetrating; Vitreoretinal surgery; Vitrectomy;Anterior eye segment; Pre-operative period; Endophthalmitis.
Purpose: To determine whether the axial length is associated with the education level in elderly patients with cataracts who were not exposed to electronic devices in the first two decades of life.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in elderly patients with cataracts in Campinas, Brazil. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group 1 included those who completed, at most, elementary school (including the illiterate and those who partially or totally attended elementary school), which corresponded to 12 years of schooling; Group 2 included, at least, high school graduates (including those who completed high school and those who partially or fully attended university). The sample was selected randomly with stratification for sex and age. The main outcome was the axial length.
Results: The sample consisted of 472 elderly patients (236 per group) who underwent cataract surgery. There were 272 (57.6%) men and 200 (42.4%) women; the distribution was symmetrical between the two groups. The median age (IQR; range) was 66 (12; 50-89) years. The median axial length (IQR; range) was 22.82 (1.51; 20.34-28.71) mm in Group 1 and 23.32 (1.45; 20.51-31.34) mm in Group 2 (p<0.001).
Conclusion: A greater axial length was associated with a higher level of education in elderly patients with cataracts, suggesting that myopization is related to an increase in activities requiring near-vision even before exposure to electronic devices.
Keywords: Axial length; eye; Myopia; Biometry; Cataract; Educational status; Humans; Aged.
Purpose: To evaluate whether baseline spectral-domain optical coherence tomography characteristics of intraretinal cystoid spaces predict visual outcomes in patients receiving intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injection therapy (bevacizumab 1.25mg/0.05ml) for diabetic cystoid macular edema.
Methods: The relationship between the properties of the cystoid spaces before injection and anatomic and functional results after injection were investigated in patients who received three consecutive intravitreal bevacizumab injections for cystoid macular edema. The best-corrected visual acuity for functional success and central subfield thickness for anatomical success were evaluated. The relationship of the location of the cystoid spaces with the integrity of photoreceptors and inner retinal layers was also evaluated.
Results: In 36 eyes of 36 patients, the mean best-corrected visual acuity significantly improved (p=0.002), and mean central subfield thickness decreased after injections (p=0.003). The improvement in best-corrected visual acuity was limited in eyes with outer nuclear layer cysts (p=0.045). Intracystic reflectivity was higher in eyes that poor best-corrected visual acuity than in eyes with successful visual outcomes (p=0.028). The disrupted ellipsoid zone was present in 13 (59.0%) of 22 eyes with outer nuclear layer cysts, whereas in only 1 of 14 eyes (7.1%) without outer nuclear layer cysts (p=0.009). Disorganization of retinal inner layers was present in 15 of 22 (68.1%) eyes with outer nuclear layer cysts, whereas only 2 of 14 (14.2%) without outer nuclear layer cysts had disorganization of retinal inner layers (p=0.013).
Conclusion: Characteristics of intraretinal cystoid spaces may predict prognosis in patients with diabetic cystoid macular edema, and visual gain may be limited in the eyes with outer nuclear layer cysts.
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Diabetic retinopathy; Macular edema; Tomography; optical coherence; Intraretinal cystoid spaces; Visual acuity.
Purpose: To investigate subjective ocular symptoms and objectively measure tear secretion in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).
Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, 24 patients who had survived COVID-19 infection and 27 healthy controls were enrolled. Conjunctival impression cytology, the Schirmer test, tear-film break-up time, corneal staining scores were applied to all the participants.
Results: No significant difference was noted with regard to the gender and mean age between the two groups (p=0.484 and p=0.599, respectively). The conjunctival impression cytology analysis revealed that the density of the goblet cells was decreased, while the counts of lymphocytes and neutrophils were increased in the COVID-19 group patients when compared with ethe control group patients. When the Nelson classification was applied to the conjunctival impression cytology samples, 25% of the COVID-19 group patients and 14.8% of the control group patients exhibited changes consistent with ≥grade 2. The mean tear-film break-up time, Schirmer test, and corneal staining score results were determined to differ between the COVID-19 and control groups (p=0.02, p<0.001, and p=0.003, respectively).
Conclusions: The present study revealed the pathological conjunctival alterations of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, indicating the possibility of the occurrence of pathological ocular surface alterations to even at the end of COVID-19 infection, without the occurrence of any significant clinical ocular manifestations.
Keywords: Coronavirus infectious; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Ocular manifestations; Tears.
Purpose: Since particles are released in syringes during intravitreal injections, we assessed them quantitatively after agitating syringes commonly used for intravitreal injections.
Methods: With and without agitation, the SR 1-ml insulin, Becton-Dickinson Ultra-Fine 0.3-ml Short Needle with a half-unit scale, HSW Norm-Ject Tuberculin, and Becton-Dickinson 1-ml Luer Lok Tip were examined with buffer and bevacizumab, aflibercept, and ziv-aflibercept. Flow imaging microscopy was performed to assess the particle numbers, concentrations, morphology, and size distribution.
Results: Using the Becton-Dickinson Ultra-Fine syringe, the average particle count after agitation was higher than in the no-agitation group. For particles greater than 10 and 25 µm, differences were observed using the SR syringe between the two studied conditions. There were no significant differences in the means for the other syringes. Without agitation, the SR syringe had the highest number of particles (2,417,361.7 ± 3,421,575.5) followed by the Becton-Dickinson Ultra-Fine with 812.530,9 ± 996.187,2. The Becton-Dickinson Luer Lok Tip and HSW Norm-Ject performed equally with 398,396.8 ± 484,239.2 and 416,016.4 ± 242,650.1 particles, respectively.
Conclusions: Flicking syringes to eliminate air bubbles results in increased numbers of particles released during intravitreal injections into the human vitreous.
Keywords: Syringes; Intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab; Silicone oil.
Conjunctival leiomyosarcoma is a very rare soft tissue malignancy. Herein, we describe a conjunctival leiomyosarcoma case in a patient with another rare disease, xeroderma pigmentosum. The 27-year-old single-eyed xeroderma pigmentosum patient complained of exophytic mass covering the ocular surface in her left eye. A vascular, hemorrhagic mass covering the entire ocular surface of the left eye was identified on the examination. Thus, total mass excision surgery was performed. The pathological diagnosis was compatible with conjunctival leiomyosarcoma. Additional chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery were not accepted by the patient. No recurrence or metastasis was observed during the 5-year follow-up. Both primary conjunctival leiomyosarcoma and xeroderma pigmentosum are very rare diseases. Conjunctival masses in xeroderma pigmentosum patients should be approached carefully, and histopathological examination is warranted. For conjunctival leiomyosarcoma, early diagnosis, localized, unspread disease, and complete resection provide the best prognosis.
Keywords: Conjunctival neoplasms; Leiomyosarcoma; Xeroderma pigmentosum; Humans; Case report.
Antiphospholipid syndrome is an acquired autoimmune disease characterized by hypercoagulability associated with recurrent venous and arterial thromboembolism in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Herein, we report a case of rapid sequential retinal vein and artery occlusion as the first manifestation of a primary antiphospholipid syndrome triggered by an acute Mycoplasma infection in a previously healthy 11-year-old patient. On day 1, ophthalmoscopy revealed a central retinal vein occlusion. The patient developed temporal branch retinal artery occlusion the next day. On day 3, a central retinal artery occlusion was observed. Serum lupus anticoagulant, immunoglobulin (Ig) G anticardiolipin, IgG anti-β2-glycoprotein 1 antibody, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM antibody levels were increased. Thus, retinal vascular occlusions can be the first manifestation of primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Although it may not improve visual prognosis, prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid further significant morbidity.
Keywords: Antiphospholipid syndrome/complications; Retinal vein occlusion; Retinal artery occlusion; Mycoplasma infection; Humans; Case report.
This article reports the case of an 11-year-old male patient with a history of proptosis and low progressive visual acuity in the left eye. He presented with a best corrected visual acuity of 20/25 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. Exotropia and limitation in adduction were observed in the left eye. On automated perimetry, inferiortemporal quadrantopsia was observed in the right eye, while total scotoma was observed in the left eye. On magnetic resonance imaging, there was an expansive lesion in the left optic nerve, extending to the brainstem with chiasmatic involvement. This article aims to report a case of optic pathway glioma, as well as to discuss its clinical findings and their interconnection with the current literature.
Keywords: Glioma; Optic nerve neoplasms; Optic chiasm; Astrocytoma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Visual Acuity; Case reports; Humans.
Keratoconus is a progressive disorder that manifests as a cone-like steepening of the central or paracentral inferior cornea and irregular stromal thinning. There is a gradual decrease in visual acuity due to corneal asymmetry, irregular astigmatism, and increased optical aberrations, consequently impacting the quality of life. Several procedures have been developed in an attempt to slow or reverse the progression. The Bader procedure, which includes a pattern of incisions around the circumference of the cornea and at the base of the protruding cone, is one such surgery. These incisions penetrate 70-90% of the cornea’s depth. Its goal is to flatten the topography and reduce corneal asymmetry and irregular astigmatism. Though prior research found these to be highly promising, we report a patient who was given contact lenses to restore and maintain his vision while his corneal ectasia and thinning progressed over the following decade.
Keywords: Keratoconus; Astigmatism; Cornea; Corneal topography; Ophthalmologic surgical procedures; Contact lenses; Dilatation; pathologic; Acuidade visual; Quality of life.
Purpose: To determine normal corneal tomographic parameters in children and adolescents without corneal disease or atopy diagnosis.
Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study evaluated patients aged 8-16 years who underwent a complete slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination and tomographic corneal evaluation by a dual Scheimpflug analyzer, excluding those with ocular disease (including allergic conjunctivitis) or a positive prick test for systemic atopies.
Results: A total of 170 patients were evaluated, and 34 patients (68 eyes) were analyzed once the exclusion criteria were applied. The sample’s mean age was 10.76 ± 2.31 years; with 19 (55.9%) men and 15 (44.1%) women. The mean keratometry in the flat meridian (Kflat), steep meridian (Ksteep), and maximum (Kmax) were 42.37 ± 1.63D, 43.53 ± 1.65D, and 43.90 ± 1.73D, respectively. The mean values for corneal asphericity (ε2) and thinnest point were 0.28 ± 0.11 and 550.20 ± 37.90 μm, respectively. The inferior-superior asymmetry ratio (I-S) and coma were 0.74 ±0.59D and 0.28 ± 0.12D, respectively.
Conclusion: The knowledge of normal corneal tomographic parameters and their variation in children and adolescents without corneal disease or atopy may be useful for diagnosing keratoconus and initiating early disease treatment.
Keywords: Cornea; Corneal topography; Astigmatism; Conjunctivitis; allergic; Tomography; Keratoconus/diagnosis; Humans; Child; Adolescent.
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of serum G receptor-mediated protein-1 levels on the development of retinopathy in patients with diabetes in comparison with healthy individuals.
Methods: The study enrolled patients with diabetic retinopathy (Group 1), patients without diabetic retinopathy (Group 2), and healthy individuals (Group 3). Levels of serum progesterone, serum G receptor-mediated protein-1, estradiol, oxidant/antioxidants, and thyroid-releasing hormones were analyzed and compared among the groups. Post-hoc analysis was performed to compare the subgroups in which significant differences were found.
Results: Groups 1, 2, and 3 each included 40 patients. A significant difference was found among all groups in terms of serum G receptor-mediated protein-1, oxidant/antioxidant, and estradiol levels (p<0.01), but no significant difference was found in terms of thyroid-releasing hormone or progesterone (p=0.496, p=0.220, respectively). In the post-hoc analysis of the groups with significant differences, another significant difference was found among all groups for serum G receptor-mediated protein-1 and oxidant/antioxidant levels (p<0.05). Serum G receptor-mediated protein-1 and oxidant levels were positively correlated, whereas serum G receptor-mediated protein-1 and antioxidant levels were negatively correlated (r=0.622/p<0.01, r=0.453/p<0.01, r=0.460/p<0.01, respectively). The multiple regression analysis showed that increased levels of serum G receptor-mediated protein-1 may help prevent diabetic retinopathy.
Conclusions: Serum G receptor-mediated protein-1 levels, which were the highest in the diabetic retinopathy Group, increased as the oxidant/antioxidant balance changed in favor of oxidative stress. This appears to be a defense mechanism for preventing neuronal damage.
Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy; GPER-1; Estradiol; Progesterone; Oxidative stress; Oxidants.
Purpose: To assess the anterior and posterior segments of full-term neonates over a 1.5-year period.
Methods: The findings of full-term neonates who underwent ophthalmological examinations between June 2019 and December 2020 were analyzed, and the results were retrospectively recorded.
Results: The study comprised 2972 neonates with a mean birth week of 38.7 ± 1.2 weeks and a mean birth weight of 3235 ± 464 g. The neonates were examined on an average of 49.3 ± 18.9 postnatal days. Of the examined neonates, 185 (6.2%) showed abnormal ophthalmological findings, the most prevalent of which were retinal hemorrhage in 2.3% (n=68) and white changes in the peripheral retina in 1.9% (n=55) of the neonates. Cases of optic disc pathologies (n=20), choroidal nevus (n=10), iris-choroidal coloboma (n=5), subconjunctival hemorrhage (n=6), non-specific retinal pigmentary change (n=4), congenital cataract (n=3), posterior synechia (n=3), iris nevus (n=3), corneal opacity (n=1), choroidal coloboma (n=1), iris coloboma (n=1), buphthalmos (n=1), anophthalmos (n=1), microphthalmia (n=1), lid hemangioma (n=1), and vitreous hemorrhage (n=1) collectively accounted for approximately 2% of all neonates. Pathologies that could potentially impair vision, which were detected by ophthalmological examination, accounted for 1.2% of all neonates (n=37).
Conclusion: The most prevalent finding of the ophthalmological examinations of neonates in the present study was retinal hemorrhage. Ophthalmological examinations of neonates can help in identifying diseases that may affect their vision and are curable or may lead to amblyopia in the long term.
Keywords: Eye abnormalities/diagnosis; Retinal; hemorrhage; Neonatal screening; Vision screening; Humans; Infant; newborn.
Purposes: The purpose of this study is to compare the standard inner limiting membrane peeling technique to the inner limiting membrane abrasion technique with respect to visual outcomes and central retinal thickness in the primary epiretinal membrane surgery.
Methods: A total of 59 eyes from 57 epiretinal membrane patients were separated into two groups including the standard inner limiting membrane peeling group and the inner limiting membrane peeling with abrasion technique group. At 6, 12, and 24 months of follow-up, the mean alteration in best-corrected visual acuity and central retinal thickness were assessed for each group.
Results: The study includes 32 (54%) standard inner peeling and 27 (46%) inner limiting membrane peeling with abrasion technique patients. The mean preoperative logMAR best-corrected visual acuity for the standard inner limiting membrane peeling and inner limiting membrane peeling with abrasion groups was 0.73 (±0.29) and 0.61 (±0.3) respectively. At 6, 12, and 24 months of follow-up, the best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly in each group. At each period of observation, the alteration in best-corrected visual acuity was not statistically significant (p=0.54, p=0.52, p=0.67). When comparing the alterations between the standard inner limiting membrane peeling and inner limiting membrane peeling with abrasion technique groups at 6 months (p=0.26) and 24 months (p=0.06), no statistically significant differences were observed, but they were statistically different at 12 months (p=0.03), reflecting a greater reduction in central retinal thickness for the inner limiting membrane peeling with abrasion technique group after one year.
Conclusion: Abrasion of the inner limiting membrane with a diamond-dusted membrane scraper during epiretinal membrane surgery demonstrates similar effectiveness to the standard inner limiting membrane peeling technique. At 12 months, retinal thinning was found to be more significant in inner limiting membrane peeling with abrasion technique patients in terms of central retinal thickness values. As a result, it may be argued that the inner limiting membrane abrasion technique eliminates the inner limiting membrane and related structures more effectively while inflicting less retinal damage.
Keywords: Epiretinal membrane; Vitrectomy; Diamond-dusted membrane scraper.
Purpose: This study investigates the protective effect of cilostazol on the development and evolution of diabetic retinopathy in rats.
Methods: Sixty male rats were divided into four groups: untreated nondiabetic rats, untreated diabetic rats, cilostazol-treated nondiabetic rats, and cilostazol-treated diabetic rats. The thickness of the internal limiting membrane to the outer limiting membrane, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, and outer nuclear layer were measured. The number of cell nuclei per 50-µm length in retinal sections was counted to quantify the degree of retinal cell loss.
Results: The number of nuclei in the ganglion cell layer was significantly higher in untreated nondiabetic rats (p<0.05). The mean number of nuclei in the cilostazol-treated nondiabetic rats was significantly higher than that in the cilostazol-treated diabetic rats (p<0.05). The cilostazol-treated nondiabetic rats had a significantly higher mean nuclei count in the inner nuclear layer and inner plexiform layer as compared with the other groups (p<0.05). The total mean retinal thickness of the cilostazol-treated nondiabetic rats was significantly higher than that of cilostazol-treated diabetic rats and untreated diabetic rats (p<0.05).
Conclusion: By decreasing the loss of ganglion cells and reducing the sensorineural atrophy in the internal retinal layers, cilostazol had a protective effect against changes caused by diabetic retinopathy in diabetic rats.
Keywords: Cilostazol; Diabetic retinopathy; Ganglion cell; Retina; Rats; Wistar.
Purpose: To examine the epidemiological characteristics of children undergoing cataract surgery at a referral center in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, as well as the facts surrounding treatment delays.
Methods: In this transversal observational study, 240 operated eyes from 178 children undergoing cataract surgery were reviewed. The following aspects were analyzed: epidemiological and clinical characteristics, parental observations, red reflex test, operated eye, and age at cataract diagnosis and surgery.
Results: The mean ages at the first visit and cataract surgery were 48.9 months (SD=50.0 months) and 64.5 months (SD= 55.4 months), respectively. The most critical sign adverted by parents was leukocoria. The red reflex test was performed on two-thirds of the children, with abnormal results in 28.0%. A family history of cataracts was evident in 30 (20,9%) children (n=144). Previous ocular surgery was found in 37 (16,6%) of the eyes (n=223), anterior segment disorders in 20 (9,0%) eyes (n=221), strabismus in 21 (9,5%) of the eyes (n=220), and nystagmus in 38 (24,4%) of the children (n=156).
Conclusions: One of the causes for the delay in admission may have been the failure to complete the red reflex. In terms of etiology, heredity was the most crucial component. The presence of strabismus and nystagmus in many of these children points to late diagnosis. The most significant impediments to adequate cataract treatment in children were the lack of referral programs and children’s specialized ophthalmologic centers, in addition to the restricted number of support professionals trained in the field and pediatric ophthalmology specialists.
Keywords: Cataract/congenital; Cataract extraction; Diagnostic techniques, ophthalmological; Low vision; Tertiary healthcare; Child
This work is a critical review of the current understanding of the effect of ultraviolet radiation on the eye. It deals with the classification of this radiation, environmental level, and the factors that determine it, along with penetration into the human eye, toxicity to ocular structures, associated morbidities, events that may increase the vulnerability of the eye, and artificial eye filters.
Keywords: Electromagnetic radiation; Ultraviolet rays; Eye burns; Ultraviolet filters; Visual disorders
Purpose: In glaucoma, initial visual field scotomas can be peripheral or central, whereas central scotomas are more severe and can disrupt daily activities. Individual anatomical features may influence the distribution of retinal nerve fibers and the starting site of visual field defects in glaucoma. In this study, we aimed to correlate myopia and hyperopia or anatomical variation of the disk-fovea angle with initial central or peripheral lesions in the visual field.
Methods: This cross-sectional study included patients with primary open-angle glaucoma divided into a group of isolated central or peripheral scotomas in the visual field with MD > or equal to -6 dB, correlating with the degree of ametropia and anatomical variations, such as the disk-fovea angle.
Results: We included 52 patients with glaucoma. Of 20 myopic patients, 6 (30%) had central scotomas, and 14 (70%) had peripheral scotomas. Of 32 hyperopic patients, 12 (37.5%) had central scotomas, and 20 (63.5%) had peripheral scotomas. Regarding the disk-fovea angle, 25 eyes had the disk-fovea angle of < -7°, with 9 (36%) eyes presenting with central scotoma, and 27 eyes presented with the disk-fovea angle of > -7°, with 9 (33.3%) eyes presenting with a central scotoma.
Conclusion: This study showed an association between ametropia and scotomas on the perimetry in patients with glaucoma. Patients had a higher incidence of peripheral scotomas, but hyperopic patients had a greater number of central scotomas than myopic patients, and myopic patients had more peripheral scotomas than hyperopic patients. The disk-fovea angle was not correlated with scotomas in initial glaucoma.
Keywords: Glaucoma; Ametropia; Foveal disk angle, Scotoma
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking on trabeculectomy outcomes.
Methods: Charts of patients with glaucoma who underwent trabeculectomy performed by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Charts were screened for a documented history of smoking status before surgery. Demographic and clinical preoperative variables were recorded. Based on smoking history, subjects were divided into two groups: smokers and nonsmokers. Any bleb-related interventions (e.g., 5-flourouracil injections ± laser suture lysis) or bleb revision performed during the postoperative period were noted. Success was defined as an intraocular pressure >5 mmHg and <21 mm Hg without (complete success) or with (qualified success) the use of ocular hypotensive medications. Failure was identified as a violation of the criteria mentioned above.
Results: A total of 98 eyes from 83 subjects were included. The mean age of the subjects was 70.7 ± 11.09 years, and 53% (44/83) were female. The most common diagnosis was primary open-angle glaucoma in 47 cases (47.9%). The smokers Group included 30 eyes from 30 subjects. When compared with nonsmokers, smokers had a significantly worse preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (p=0.038), greater central corneal thickness (p=0.047), and higher preoperative intraocular pressure (p=0.011). The success rate of trabeculectomy surgery at 1 year was 56.7% in the smokers Group compared with 79.4% in the Group nonsmokers (p=0.020). Smoking presented an odds ratio for failure of 2.95 (95% confidence interval, 1.6-7.84).
Conclusion: Smokers demonstrated a significantly lower success rate 1 year after trabeculectomy compared with nonsmokers and a higher requirement for bleb-related interventions.
Keywords: Glaucoma open-angle; Trabeculectomy; Intraocular pressure; Tobacco use disorder; Tobacco/adverse effects; Visual acuity
Purpose: To present long-term results of pars plana vitrectomy combined with pan-retinal endolaser photocoagulation, Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation, and/or phacoemulsification in patients with complicated neovascular glaucoma.
Methods: The study comprised 15 eyes from 15 patients with neovascular glaucoma as a complication of diabetic retinopathy and owing to ischemic central retinal vein occlusion. There was a vitreous hemorrhage n all of the patients. Furthermore, 8 of the cases showed varying degrees of hyphema. All subjects received an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab three days before surgery. In 12 phakic patients, phacoemulsification, pars plana vitrectomy, and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation were performed. Pars plana vitrectomy and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation were performed in 3 pseudophakic patients. Perioperative and postoperative complications, intraocular pressure values, and best-corrected visual acuity scores were also recorded.
Results: The mean follow-up was 24.4 ± 14.56 months. The mean preoperative intraocular pressure was 50.06 ± 7.6 mmHg. At 1 day, 7 days, and 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-month, and last visit following surgery, the mean intraocular pressure was 11.06 ± 8.22, 12.66 ± 7.27, 13.8 ± 7.73, 18.64 ± 7.05, 19.28 ± 4.61, 16.28 ± 1.68, and 16.92 ± 2.12 mmHg, respectively (p=0.001 for every follow-up visit). The mean visual acuity on the most recent appointment was 1.18 ± 0.42 logMar (p=0.001 for each subsequent visit). As postoperative early complications, varying degrees of hyphema and fibrin reactions were recorded. During follow-up, one patient developed phthisis bulbi. In 4 cases, Ahmed glaucoma valve revision surgery was required.
Conclusions: In patients with complicated neovascular glaucoma, combined surgical procedures are safe, effective, and preferable both in terms of controlling high intraocular pressure and providing reasonable visual abilities.
Keywords: Glaucoma, neovascular/complications; Vitrectomy; Glaucoma drainage implants; Phacoemulsification
Purpose: Only a few trials have compared the intraocular pressure-lowering effects of prostaglandin analogs to carbonic anhydrase inhibitor plus beta-blocker fixed-dose combination therapy in patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. Furthermore, the influence of the glaucoma stage on the intraocular pressure-lowering effects of these drug types has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to compare the IOP-lowering efficacy of latanoprost, a prostaglandin analog versus dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor plus beta-blocker fixed-dose combination therapy, in patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma based on glaucoma stage.
Methods: The data of 32 eyes (32 patients) diagnosed with uniocular pseudoexfoliative glaucoma and treated with topical latanoprost (Group 1) or dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination (Group 2) were retrospectively assessed. The groups were subdivided into early and moderate-advanced stages. Patients’ demographics, baseline intraocular pressure, final intraocular pressure, and intraocular pressure difference (the difference between the baseline and final intraocular pressure) were determined from medical records and compared between groups and according to glaucoma stage.
Results: The mean drug use duration was 17.7 ± 13.5 months. No significant differences in mean baseline intraocular pressure, mean final intraocular pressure and mean intraocular pressure difference between Groups 1 and 2. In Group 2, the mean intraocular pressure difference was significantly greater in patients with early versus moderate-advanced stage glaucoma (p=0.015). The difference, however, was not detected in Group 1. The mean intraocular pressure difference in early-stage glaucoma was significantly greater in Group 2 versus 1 (p=0.033).
Conclusions: Latanoprost and dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination are effective treatments for newly diagnosed pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. In early-stage pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, greater intraocular pressure reduction was noted with dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination than with latanoprost; thus, dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination should be considered when a significant decrease in intraocular pressure is desired in early-stage glaucoma.
Keywords: Dorzolamide; Timolol; Glaucoma; Pseudoexfoliative glaucoma; Intraocular pressure; Latanoprost; Pharmaceutical preparations
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the vascular effects of photobiomodulation using a light-emitting diode on the chorioallantoic embryonic membrane of chicken eggs grouped into different times of exposure and to detect the morphological changes induced by the light on the vascular network architecture using quantitative metrics.
Methods: We used a phototherapy device with light-emitting diode (670 nm wavelength) as the source of photobiomodulation. We applied the red light at a distance of 2.5 cm to the surface of the chorioallantoic embryonic membrane of chicken eggs in 2, 4, or 8 sessions for 90 s and analyzed the vascular network architecture using AngioTool software (National Cancer Institute, USA). We treated the negative control group with 50 µl phosphate-buffered-saline (pH 7.4) and the positive control group (Beva) with 50 µl bevacizumab solution (Avastin, Produtos Roche Químicos e Farmacêuticos, S.A., Brazil).
Results: We found a decrease in total vessel length in the Beva group (24.96% ± 12.85%) and in all the groups that received 670 nm red light therapy (2× group, 34.66% ± 8.66%; 4× group, 42.42% ± 5.26%; 8× group, 38.48% ± 6.96%), compared with the negative control group. The fluence of 5.4 J/cm2 in 4 sessions (4×) showed more regular vessels. The number of junctions in the groups that received a higher incidence of 670 nm red light (4× and 8×) significantly decreased (p<0.0001).
Conclusion: Photobiomodulation helps reduce vascularization in chorioallantoic embryonic membrane of chicken eggs and changes in the network architecture. Our results open the possibility of future clinical studies on using this therapy in patients with retinal diseases with neovascular components, especially age-related macular degeneration.
Keywords: Photobiomodulation; Chorioallantoic membrane; Red light therapy; Angiogenesis; Age-related macular degeneration; Retinal vessels
Medical specialties have recognized that breaking bad news assists clinical practice by mitigating the impact of difficult conversations. This scenario also encourages various studies on breaking bad news in ophthalmology since certain ocular diagnoses can be considered bad news. Thus, the objective is to review the scientific literature on breaking bad news in ophthalmology. The literature databases like MEDLINE/PUBMED, EMBASE, LILACS, SCOPUS, COCHRANE, and SCIELO, were screened for related research publications. Two independent reviewers read all the articles and short-listed the most relevant ones. Seven articles, in the formats of original article, review, editorial, oral communication, and correspondence, were reviewed. Conclusively it reveals that ophthalmologists are concerned with communicating bad news effectively but lack related studies. Nevertheless, there is a growing realization that training in breaking bad news can increase physicians’ confidence during communication, thus, benefiting the therapeutic relationship with the patient and his family. Therefore, it would be valuable to include breaking bad news training in the curriculum of residencies.
Keywords: Breaking bad news; Communication; Clinical Competence; Physician-patient relationship; Ophthalmology; Truth disclosure
A 59-year-old man presented with a unilateral blurring of vision in his left eye. His left eye’s visual acuity was hand movements level. He underwent phacoemulsification surgery, and an intrastromal posterior chamber intraocular lens was implanted. The intrastromal intraocular lens was extracted and a new intraocular lens was implanted. Usinge the Snellen chart, the final best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40. With this case report, we wish to emphasize that a single stepwise clear corneal incision merged with wound-assisted intraocular lens injections can result in intraocular lens misdirection into the corneal stroma. As a result, while performing a misdirected intraocular lens removal, we recommend that the wound be carefully constructed.
Keywords: Lens implantation, intraocular; Lenses, intraocular; Phacoemulsification; Wound healing; Cataract; Visual acuity
This case report presents the details of a 33-year-old female patient who was referred to a specialized retina service because of mild vision loss in her right eye). The patient’s visual acuity was 20/25 in right eye and 20/50 in the left eye (; amblyopic); the spherical equivalent was -12.75 diopters (right eye) and -14.75 diopters (left eye). Multimodal retinal imaging showed peripapillary schisis in both the inner and outer retinal layers, grade II posterior vitreous detachment, and a tessellated fundus. Using Humphrey perimetry and MP-3 microperimetry, the functional evaluation indicated macular sensitivity within normal limits and decreased sensitivity in the peripapillary region, especially in right eye. The pattern-reversal visual evoked potential was measured. The N75 and P100 latency and amplitude in right eye were within normal values for checks of 1o. However, the amplitude was low for checks of 15´. Highly myopic patients who have posterior staphyloma that involves the optic nerve are susceptible to posterior hyaloid traction, and the resulting peripapillary vitreous traction may compromise vision.
Keywords: Myopia, degenerative; Retinoschisis; Retinal detachment; Optical coherence tomography; Humans; Case reports
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) vitreolysis for symptomatic vitreous floaters as it remains a controversial procedure due to insufficient robust evidence in the literature for the maintenance of the results and absence of adverse effects.
Methods: This is an observational extension to the previously presented prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Eight of thirteen subjects who underwent vitreolysis with YAG laser returned for a late reevaluation, 18 months after the procedure, to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the procedure.
Results: All patients maintained the improvement in symptomatology noted after the procedure, with 25% showing complete improvement and a similar proportion (37.5%) reporting significant or partial improvement. Objective improvement in opacity was similar to that found at 6 months follow-up. The NEI-VFQ 25 quality of life questionnaire showed no statistically significant difference in responses between the 6th and 18th month. No adverse effects were noted on clinical examination or reported by patients.
Conclusion: Vitreolysis efficacy observed at 6 months of follow-up was maintained until the eighteenth month, with all patients reporting improvement from the pre-procedure state. No late adverse effects were noted. A larger randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm the safety of the procedure.
Keywords: Laser therapy; Lasers, solid-state; Vitrectomy; Vitreous body; Vitreoretinal surgery; Visual acuity; Eye diseases; Quality of life; Surveys and questionnaires
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraretinal layer thickness in the macular region and its correlation with the duration of uveitis and visual acuity in patients with Behçet uveitis.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 93 eyes of 57 patients with Behçet uveitis and 100 eyes of 50 healthy individuals admitted to a tertiary center from January to September 2017. We performed macular measurements in all subjects via spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and divided the retina into layers using automated segmentation software on the SD-OCT device. We then compared layer thicknesses between the patient and control groups and evaluated the correlation between OCT parameters and the duration of uveitis and visual acuity in the patient group.
Results: Our records show a mean age of 37.9 ± 10.8 (18-64) years and 37.7 ± 12.2 (21-61) years in the patient and control groups (p=0.821), respectively. Meanwhile, data reveal a mean duration of uveitis of 6.9 ± 4.7 (1-20) years. We found a reduction in the total outer layer thickness in the patient group (p<0.001). However, we did not find a statistically significant difference in the inner retinal layers except in the inner nuclear layer. The duration of uveitis negatively correlated with the outer retinal layer’s thickness (correlation coefficient = -0.250). On the other hand, visual acuity positively correlated with the central macular, the total inner layer, and the outer retinal layer thicknesses (correlation coefficients: 0.194, 0.154, and 0.364, respectively). However, the inner nuclear layer negatively correlated with visual acuity.
Conclusions: Using retinal segmentation via SD-OCT for follow-ups can help estimate visual loss in patients with Behçet uveitis, which can cause significant changes in intraretinal layers in the macular region.
Keywords: Behçet disease; Behçet uveitis; Intraretinal layers; Optical coherence tomography; Retinal segmentation
A 42-year-old female patient had vision loss and chronic epiphora in her left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 10/10 in the right eye and 0.3/10 in the left eye. The anterior segment examination results were normal. In fundus examination, choroidal folds were detected. Optical coherence tomography showed elevation on the macula and choroidal folds. Ultrasonography revealed a T-sign. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an ethmoidal mucocele that compresses the orbital tissues. Surgical treatment was performed in the otorhinolaryngology department. Postoperatively, choroidal folds recovered, and the best-corrected visual acuity improved, but subretinal fluid accumulated. During the follow-up period without any treatment, subretinal fluid totally disappeared.
Keywords: Maculopathy; Tomography, optical coherence; Choroid diseases, Mucocele
Purpose: To assess the effects of the preoperative application of artificial tears combined with recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor on the ocular surface function and inflammatory factor levels after operation in cataract patients complicated with dry eyes.
Methods: A total of 118 cataract patients (118 eyes) complicated with dry eyes treated from February 2019 to February2020 were assigned to control and observation groups (n=59 eyes/group) using a random number table. One week before the operation, the control group was administered 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops (artificial tears), based on which the observation group received Beifushu eye drops (recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor), both 6 times daily for 1 week. A comparison was made between the scores of clinical symptoms and the indices of ocular surface function, inflammatory factors in tears, and oxidative stress indices before and after the operation. The ocular surface function was evaluated by an ocular surface disease index questionnaire, tear film breakup-time assay, Schirmer’s I test, and corneal fluorescein stain test. The inflammatory factors in tears were measured.
Results: No significant differences were noted in the general data and clinical symptom score, ocular surface disease index, tear film breakup-time, Schirmer’s I test score, fluorescein stain score, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxide, and total antioxidant capacity before treatment between the 2 groups (p>0.05). After treatment, the clinical symptom score, ocular surface disease index, fluorescein stain score, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde and lipid peroxide declined significantly, and tear film breakup-time, Schirmer’s I test score, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity increased in both the groups. The improvements in the clinical symptom score as well as in the indices of ocular surface function, inflammatory factors, and oxidative stress were more prominent in the observation group than in the control group (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Artificial tears combined with recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor before operation. significantly improved the ocular surface function, reduced inflammatory factors in tears, and alleviated dry eye symptoms after operation in cataract patients.
Keywords: Artificial tear; Basic fibroblast growth factor; Ocular surface; Cataract; Dry eyes
Purpose: This study aimed to screen the ocular surface of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and identify the adverse effects of methylphenidate related to dry eye disease.
Methods: This cross-sectional study included children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and healthy children (all aged 5-18 years). They were randomized into Group A (without methylphenidate treatment), Group B (with methylphenidate treatment), and Group C (healthy children). Tear film break-up time, Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, tear meniscus height, tear meniscus area, and Schirmer test results were evaluated. Furthermore, symptom severity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was assessed by Turgay DSM-IV-based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale and Conners Parent Rating Scale-48.
Results: Groups A, B, and C consisted of 34, 40, and 60 individuals (n=34, 40, and 60 eyes; age=11.44 ± 2.79, 11.70 ± 2.83, and 11.96 ± 3.63 years, median age=12, 12, and 11.5 years), respectively. Tear film break-up time, Ocular Surface Disease Index, tear meniscus height, tear meniscus area, and Schirmer test results were not significantly different between Groups A and C (p=0.964, 0.336, 0.445, 0.439, and 0.759, respectively). However, Group B showed a significant decrease in tear film break-up time (10.50 ± 3.39 vs. 12.52 ± 2.46 s; p=0.005), tear meniscus height (307.40 ± 5.53 vs. 310.82 ± 7.30 µm; p=0.025), tear meniscus area (0.024 ± 0.0037 vs. 0.026 ± 0.0046 mm2; p=0.010) and Schirmer test (12.75 ± 3.96 vs. 15.41 ± 3.75 mm; p=0.004) results compared with Group A.
Conclusion: Compared with healthy children, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder showed ocular surface parameters suggestive of dry eye disease despite taking methylphenidate. Thus, they require close ophthalmologic follow-up to prevent sight-threatening dry eye complications.
Keywords: Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity; Methylphenidate/adverse effects; Anterior eye segment; Optical coherence tomography; Dry eye syndromes.
Due to the development of complications and the biocompatibility and scarcity of transplant donor tissues, artificial corneas, which can be used for the rehabilitation of optical functions, have been developed. The current study aimed to analyze the visual rehabilitation effects of the Boston type I keratoprosthesis, Boston type II keratoprosthesis, Aurolab keratoprosthesis, osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis, and tibial bone keratoprosthesis. Results showed that the Boston type I keratoprosthesis was the most effective for visual rehabilitation in patients with moist ocular surfaces. The Aurolab keratoprosthesis had a lower efficacy for visual rehabilitation. Nevertheless, it is still a viable option for individuals in economically restricted countries. In patients with dry eyes, the Boston type II keratoprosthesis was associated with the best visual rehabilitation. However, the final visual acuity of patients who received osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis and tibial bone keratoprosthesis implantation was not evaluated as the necessary information was not available.
Keywords: Corneal transplantation; Visual prosthesis; Cornea; Rehabilitation; Visual acuity
Purpose: In this prospective study, we compared ocular clinical variables in patients with acne vulgaris with those of healthy controls. These variables included tear film break-up time, meibomian gland dropout rate, and anterior chamber parameters.
Methods: Our sample comprised 73 eyes from 73 patients with acne vulgaris and 67 eyes from 67 healthy controls. All participants underwent a non-invasive first tear film break-up time test and the average tear film break-up time was evaluated. Meibography was used to identify any meibomian gland dropout. The parameters of the cornea and anterior chamber were measured using Scheimpflug topography imaging. Finally, the ocular surface disease index questionnaire was administered to score each participant on their subjective experience of ocular complaints.
Results: The noninvasive first tear film break-up time values of the acne vulgaris Group and the control Group were 4.7 ± 2.8 and 6.4 ± 3.5 sec, respectively. There was a significant difference between the groups (p=0.016). The number of eyes with tear break-up at any time during the measurement period was also significantly higher in the acne Group (p=0.018). In the acne vulgaris Group, the mean meibomian gland dropout rates were 33.21 ± 15.5% in the upper lids and 45.4 ± 14.5% in the lower lids. In the control group, these rates were 15.7 ± 6.9% and 21 ± 9.7% respectively. Dropout was significantly higher in the acne group for both the upper and lower lids (p=0.000).
Conclusion: We found impaired tear stability in patients with acne vulgaris and a high rate of meibomian gland dropout. These glands play a key role in tear stability and their dropout is likely to result in evaporative dry eye. Measurement of the variables in this study allows objective diagnosis of this condition using a non-invasive, dye-free methodology, with minimum contact.
Keywords: Acne vulgaris; Meibomian glands; Anterior chamber; Noninvasive break-up time test; Tear film
We report a case of bilateral acute depigmentation of the iris in which satisfactory intraocular pressure control was obtained after resolution of the acute disease with a trabecular implant (iStent®). A 62-year-old woman presented with bilateral simultaneous acute eye pain, photophobia, increased intraocular pressure (34 mmHg), circulating pigment in the anterior chamber, areas of depigmentation in the iris, and posterior synechiae. She had received oral amoxicillin-clavulanate and moxifloxacin for pneumonia 2 months previously. Bilateral acute depigmentation of the iris was suspected as well as a viral etiology. She received oral acetazolamide, aciclovir, and prednisone, besides topical prednisolone, betaxolol, brimonidine, dorzolamide, and atropine. The disease gradually resolved in 4 months but, after 1 year, she developed bilateral cataracts, and still needed three drugs for intraocular pressure control (16/18 mmHg). Cataract-iStent® combined surgery was performed in both eyes. One year after surgery, intraocular pressure was 11/12 mmHg, without medication. iStent® was safe and effective on this secondary glaucoma.
Keywords: Iris disease; Cataract; Ocular hypertension; Stents; Gonioscopy
A 33-year-old male presented with unilateral subacute infectious keratitis 4 weeks after surgery. Corneal inflammation was resistant to standard topical antibiotic regimens. During diagnostic flap lifting and sampling, the corneal flap melted and separated. Through flap lifting, corneal scraping, microbiological diagnosis of atypical mycobacteria, and treatment with topical fortified amikacin, clarithromycin, and systemic clarithromycin, clinical improvement was achieved.
Keywords: Cornea/microbiology; Corneal ulcer; Eye infections, bacterial; Mycobacterium abscessus; Refractive surgical procedures; Keratomileusis, laser in situ; Amikacin/therapeutic use; Clarithromycin/therapeutic use; Humans; Case reports
A 51-year-old non-obese woman presented with a one-week history of progressive blurry vision within the inferior visual field of her left eye. Her only relevant past medical history was long-standing hypothyroidism and recent vaccination against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) with an mRNA vaccine 12 days before the onset of symptoms. At examination, the anterior segment was unremarkable, but the retinal fundus revealed a central retinal vein occlusion associated with a branch retinal artery occlusion of the superior temporal branch in her left eye. Ancillary tests to rule out thrombophilia, hyperviscosity, hypercoagulability, or inflammation were negative. Ultrasound tests were also negative for a cardiac or carotid origin of the branch retinal artery occlusion. At two-month follow-up, no new retinal vascular occlusive events were observed. Although the best-corrected visual acuity at presentation was 8/10 in the left eye, the final best-corrected visual acuity remained 3/10.
Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines/adverse effects; RNA, messenger; Retinal vein occlusion/diagnosis; Retinal artery occlusion; Humans; Case report
PURPOSE: Trimethylamine N-oxide serum levels have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications. The current study aimed to find out if plasma trimethylamine N-oxide level may be a novel marker in the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy and if it can be used in the differential diagnosis of diabetic and nondiabetic retinopathy.
METHODS: The study included 30 patients with diabetic retinopathy, 30 patients with nondiabetic retinopathy, 30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without retinopathy, and 30 healthy control participants. Biochemical parameters, serum IL-6, TNF-α, and trimethylamine N-oxide levels were measured in all participants.
RESULTS: Trimethylamine N-oxide level was significantly higher in diabetic retinopathy than in the other groups (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in trimethylamine N-oxide levels between nondiabetic retinopathy and control or type 2 diabetes mellitus Groups. There was a significant positive correlation between trimethylamine N-oxide level and elevated FPG, BMI, HOMA-IR score, BUN, IL-6, and TNF-α levels.
CONCLUSION: The current study showed that the trimethylamine N-oxide level is elevated in diabetic retinopathy. These findings suggest that serum trimethylamine N-oxide level might be a novel marker for diabetic retinopathy, and it might be used in the differential diagnosis of diabetic and nondiabetic retinopathy.
Keywords: Biomarkers; Diabetic retinopathy; Differential diagnosis; Oxides; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Trimethylamine-N-oxide; Trimethyloxamine
PURPOSE: To translate and validate a questionnaire that evaluates the theoretical knowledge regarding fundus examination.
METHODS: A 60-item multiple-choice English questionnaire that investigates various aspects of knowledge regarding fundus examination was translated into Portuguese. The process involved translation, back-translation, and evaluation by an expert committee. The resulting questionnaire was applied to final-year medical students and ophthalmology residents. Each included subject answered the questionnaire twice, with an interval of one week between each application. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and percentage agreement were calculated.
RESULTS: Thirty participants were included (25 medical students and 5 ophthalmology residents). The pass-fail cutoff was calculated at 46, the theoretical false positives were 8.7% and the theoretical false negatives were 2.8%. The observed false positive and false negative rates were 0%. Among the 60 items, test-retest reliability was strong in 17 items, which one had a negative correlation, moderate in 14 items, which one had a negative correlation, and weak in 29 items; inter-rater reliability of 34 items was under 0.4, 17 items were between 0.4 and 0.6, and 8 items were above 0.6. One item had a negative kappa. Among the percent agreement, 10 items were between 40%-60% agreement, 50 were above 60% agreement, and 18 were above 80%. Cronbach’s alpha was calculated as 0.674.
CONCLUSIONS: The translated questionnaire provided a standard instrument for future research and interventions to improve medical education in ophthalmology.
Keywords: Questionnaire and surveys; Translating; Fundus oculi
PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of impaired vision. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of use of portable retinograph and remote analysis of images along with a virtual questionnaire for screening for diabetic retinopathy in basic health units in the city of Ribeirão Preto/SP during the Covid-19 pandemic.
METHODS: Standard Covid-19 protocol was followed during the screening. Blood pressure and capillary blood glucose were measured. Demographic and social data were collected through a standardized online questionnaire via smartphone. After pupillary dilation, fundal images were obtained with portable retinographs by trained ophthalmology residents. Two standardized 45° images were acquired: one posterior segment and another nasal to the optic nerve. Diabetic retinopathy was classified according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study.
RESULTS: A total of 350 patients (64% female; 45% aged 55-70 years; 55% Caucasian) were evaluated. For 40.5% of patients, the campaign was the first opportunity for retinal evaluation; 47.56% had diabetes mellitus for >10 years. On repeat analysis of images stored in a cloud-based repository by retinal specialist, a 7.8% difference was observed in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study diabetic retinopathy classification, compared to the screening findings. Mild diabetic retinopathy was observed in 12.23%, moderate diabetic retinopathy in 6.31%, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in 2.58% patients. Macular edema was present in 4.58% patients. Diabetic retinopathy was not detected in 72.78% patients.
CONCLUSION: Use of portable retinographs together with telemedicine can provide efficient alternative to traditional methods for screening and diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy.
Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy/diagnosis; Covid-19; Retina/ diagnostic imaging; Ophthalmology/instrumentation; Ophthalmoscopes; Point-of-care systems; Telemedicine/methods.
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms of injury and types of orbital fractures and their relation to concurrent commotio retinae.
METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the records of patients with orbital fractures whose diagnoses had been confirmed by computer tomography between July 2017 and September 2019. Patient demographics, the circumstances of injury, ophthalmic examination results, and radiological findings were tabulated. Statistical analysis of the data used two-tailed student’s t-tests, chi-squared tests, and odds ratio calculations. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.
RESULTS: Of the 204 patients with orbital fractures included in this study, 154 (75.5%) were male. The mean age was 42.1 years. Orbital fractures involving one orbital wall (58.8%) were more common than those affecting multiple walls (41.2%). The majority of fractures affected the inferior wall (60.3%), with the medial walls being the next most frequently affected (19.6%). The most common cause of injury was assault (59.3%), and the second most common was falls (24%). Commotio retinae was observed in 20.1% of orbital fracture cases and was most associated with injuries caused by assault (OR=5.22, p<0.001) and least associated with those caused by falls (OR=0.06, p<0.001). Eye movement restrictions were more common in central than peripheral commotio (OR=3.79, p=0.015) and with medial wall fractures than fractures to other orbital walls (OR=7.16, p<0.001). The odds of commotio were not found to be higher in patients with multi-walled orbital fractures than in those with single-walled fractures (p=0.967).
CONCLUSIONS: In the study population, assault was the most common cause of orbital fractures and resulted in commotio retinae than other causes. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the likelihood of commotio retinae in patients with orbital fractures resulting from assault, regardless of the extent of the patient’s injuries.
Keywords: Orbital fractures; Eye movements; Retina; Commotio and injuries
Primary graft failure (PGF) is a known complication following penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). The usual approach to treat this complication is to repeat a penetrating keratoplasty. Here, we report a case of Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) for the treatment of PGF after PKP. A patient that underwent PKP, developed PGF with persistent graft edema and very poor visual acuity despite aggressive steroid use and a proof anti-viral treatment. Three months after the initial surgery, a DMEK was performed under the PKP graft. There was progressive early corneal clearing and, by the end of the first month, the patient already had no corneal edema. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) improved to 20/40 and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) to 20/20. DMEK may be an alternative to a second PKP for the treatment of PGF. This technique is a less invasive option when compared to the standard PKP procedure.
Keywords: Corneal diseases; Corneal transplantation/adverse effects; Graft Rejection; Keratoplasty, penetrating; Descemet membrane; Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty; Eye infections, viral; Humans; Case reports
A 7-week-old male delivered by cesarean section presented with a positive serology for dengue along with preretinal and retinal hemorrhages, vitreous opacities and cotton wool spots. The patient and his mother had positive serologies for Non Structural Protein 1 (NS1) by ELISA. Retinal and vitreous findings improved over a sixteen-week period. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed preserved macular architecture. In this case report, we suggest that retinal and vitreous changes may be the ocular presenting features of vertically transmitted dengue in newborns, and that those findings may resolve with no major structural sequelae.
Keywords: Dengue; Pregnancy complication, infectious; Infectious disease transmission, vertical; Eye manifestations; Retinal hemorrhage; Vitreous hemorrhage; Human; Infant, newborn, diseases; Case reports
We present a literature review of 57 publications describing this pathology, published from the year 2012. In all these studies patients were reported to depict a slow-growing, motionless mass, which is painless at most times. All cases were managed by total excision, except for one report where adjuvant radiotherapy was applied. Among the several therapeutic strategies, the total tumor resection, preserving the tumor pseudocapsule intact, appears to be a consensus in treating the disease efficiently. Furthermore, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, including the assessment of genetic alterations, has proved to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of challenging cases. Our literature survey also suggests that an incisional biopsy before the surgery may lead to the pseudocapsule disruption, thus considerably increasing the chances of adenoma recurrence, enabling its malignization. At present, genetics studies indicate that the molecular aberrations involved in the adenoma are similar to those represented in the salivary gland tumor pathogenesis. Further, in the recurrent cases, the pathology becomes difficult to treat and multiple surgeries may be required, occasionally, leading to radical surgery treatment.
Keywords: Adenoma, pleomorphic; Lacrimal apparatus; Salivary gland neoplasms; Orbit; Biopsy, fine-needle
PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare four depths of manual dissection for the preparation of Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty lamellae.
METHODS: Eye bank corneas were randomized into four groups according to dissection depths: Pachy-100 (incision depth = central corneal thickness-safety margin of 100 µm), Pachy-50 (safety margin of 50 µm), Pachy-0 (no safety margin), and Pachy+50 (incision depth = central corneal thickness + 50 µm). All endothelial lamellae were prepared using a standardized method of manual dissection (Pachy-DSEK). The central, paracentral (3.0-mm zone), and peripheral (6.0-mm zone) lamella thicknesses and incision depths were measured by optical coherence tomography. The 3.0-mm and 6.0-mm zone central-to-peripheral thickness ratios were calculated.
RESULTS: Endothelial perforation occurred only in the Pachy+50 group (n=3, 30%). Central lamella’s thickness in Pachy-100, Pachy-50, Pachy-0, and Pachy+50 groups measured 185 ± 42 µm, 122 ± 29 µm, 114 ± 29 µm, and 58 ± 31 µm, respectively (p<0.001). The overall 3.0- and 6.0-mm C/P ratios were 0.97 ± 0.06 and 0.92 ± 0.14, respectively. Preoperative donor characteristics were not correlated with most thickness outcomes. The planned incision depth correlated significantly with most lamella’s thickness parameters (p<0.001). The overall thickness of the lamella negatively correlated with the planned incision depth (p<0.001, r=-0.580). The best outcome was found in the Pachy-0 group, as 75% of the lamellae measured <130 µm and there was no endothelial perforation.
CONCLUSIONS: By using a standardized method of dissection, most manually prepared lamellae presented a planar shape. Setting the incision depth to the central corneal thickness did not result in endothelial perforation and a high percentage of ultrathin lamellae was achieved.
Keywords: Corneal transplantation; Lamellar keratoplasty; Corneal endothelium; Dissection; Tomography, optical coherence
PURPOSE: The emergency medical service is a fundamental part of healthcare, albeit crowded emergency rooms lead to delayed and low-quality assistance in actual urgent cases. Machine-learning algorithms can provide a smart and effective estimation of emergency patients’ volume, which was previously restricted to artificial intelligence (AI) experts in coding and computer science but is now feasible by anyone without any coding experience through auto machine learning. This study aimed to create a machine-learning model designed by an ophthalmologist without any coding experience using AutoML to predict the influx in the emergency department and trauma cases.
METHODS: A dataset of 356,611 visits at Hospital da Universidade Federal de São Paulo from January 01, 2014 to December 31, 2019 was included in the model training, which included visits/day and the international classification disease code. The training and prediction were made with the Amazon Forecast by 2 ophthalmologists with no prior coding experience.
RESULTS: The forecast period predicted a mean emergency patient volume of 216.27/day in p90, 180.75/day in p50, and 140.35/day in p10, and a mean of 7.42 trauma cases/day in p90, 3.99/day in p50, and 0.56/day in p10. In January of 2020, there were a total of 6,604 patient visits and a mean of 206.37 patients/day, which is 13.5% less than the p50 prediction. This period involved a total of 199 trauma cases and a mean of 6.21 cases/day, which is 55.77% more traumas than that by the p50 prediction.
CONCLUSIONS: The development of models was previously restricted to data scientists’ experts in coding and computer science, but transfer learning autoML has enabled AI development by any person with no code experience mandatory. This study model showed a close value to the actual 2020 January visits, and the only factors that may have influenced the results between the two approaches are holidays and dataset size. This is the first study to apply AutoML in hospital visits forecast, showing a close prediction of the actual hospital influx.
Keywords: Machine learning; Emergency services, hospital; Eye injuries; Models, statistical; Algorithms
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of unilateral corneal collagen cross-linking treatment on visual acuity and the topographic findings of the fellow untreated eye of patients who had bilateral progressive keratoconus.
METHODS: Patients with progressive keratoconus who underwent cross-linking treatment were screened retrospectively. A total of 188 untreated eyes of 188 patients whose eyes were treated unilaterally with either standard or accelerated cross-linking and refused cross-linking procedure for the fellow eye were included. Visual acuity and topographic findings of the fellow untreated eyes were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 12th, 24th, 30th, and 36th months.
RESULTS: The change over time of variables examined was similar in the untreated eyes of patients who received standard and accelerated cross-linking methods (p>0.05). At the 12th month, 136 (95.8%) untreated eyes were stable according to progression criteria. Only 4 (8%) eyes were progressive at the 24th month. No progression was observed in any of the 16 patients with a 36-month follow up.
CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the fellow untreated eyes of patients with bilateral progressive keratoconus did not have significant progression rates after unilateral cross-linking treatment.
Keywords: Corneal topography; Cross-linking reagents; Keratoconus; Photosensitizing agents; Collagen/therapeutic use; Photochemotherapy/methods; Visual acuity
PURPOSE: Dry eye disease is a multifactorial disease that is very common in clinical ophthalmic practice. The use of validated dry eye questionnaires makes it possible to screen this disease in the general population and assess the prevalence of symptoms and frequency of diagnosis, allowing early and appropriate treatment for this condition. The 5-Item Dry Eye Questionnaire (DEQ-5) is a tool that is used to assess the frequency and intensity of ocular discomfort and dryness and the frequency of tearing, which has already been validated in English and Spanish, but not in Portuguese. The aim of this study is to translate and validate the DEQ-5 to Portuguese.
METHODS: The DEQ-5 was used, consisting of five simple and direct questions: two questions for ocular discomfort, two for ocular dryness, and one for tearing. The initial translation of the English version of the questionnaire into Portuguese was conducted by two Portuguese native-speaking translators, followed by an evaluation and compilation of a single version by an interdisciplinary committee of the translated versions. Furthermore, this version was translated back into English by two individuals whose first language was English, followed by the evaluation and comparison with the original version in English by the same interdisciplinary committee. Afterwards, the final version of the questionnaire was administered to 31 volunteers at two different times.
RESULTS: The interobserver reliability of the five questions ranged from 0.584-0.813, and the Pearson correlation from 0.755-0.935, with a p-value of <0.0001. Internal consistency was α=0.887. All questions had moderate to high agreement.
CONCLUSIONS: The statistical analysis of the collected data found excellent concordance rates (moderate to high for all analyzed questions), allowing the use of the Portuguese version of DEQ-5 in research as a screening test for dry eye disease and tool used to monitor the symptoms.
Keywords: Dry eye syndromes; Diagnostic techniques, ophthalmological; Surveys and questionnaires; Translations
PURPOSE: To analyze teleconsultation at a public ophthalmic teaching hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil.
METHODS: Medical records of patients who requested ophthalmological teleconsultation between June 2020 and March 2021 were reviewed. The main outcomes included demographic data, eye disease symptoms, hypothesized diagnosis, and management. Moreover, the results of a satisfaction survey administered after the consultation were analyzed.
RESULTS: Medical records of a total of 161 patients were reviewed. The mean age was 45.98 ± 17.57 (8-90) years, and most were women (113, 70.20%). Only 57 (35.60%) of the patients had made previous follow-up visits to the hospital. The most frequent reason for consultation was the need for a new eyeglass prescription (73, 45.34%), followed by dry eye symptoms (16, 9.93%) and pterygium (13, 8.07%). Other reasons were the monitoring of previously diagnosed eye diseases, such as glaucoma, retinopathies, strabismus, and keratoconus. Regarding the satisfaction survey, 151 (93.78%) patients answered the online questionnaire. Most reported that they were satisfied with the teleconsultation (94.03%) and would participate in a future teleconsultation (90.06%).
CONCLUSION: Teleconsultation could be widely used to assist patients in public ophthalmology healthcare and teaching hospitals. Even though new eyeglass prescriptions are a frequent reason for ophthalmological appointments, patients tend to be satisfied with teleconsultation, as it also provides guidance.
Keywords: COVID-19; Telemedicine; Pandemics; Remote consultation; Eye diseases/diagnosis; Hospitals, public
PURPOSES: This study aimed to determine the association of the long-term refractive outcomes of cataract surgery with self-reported visual function obtained using Catquest-9SF.
METHODS: Patients recruited from the cataract outpatient clinic of VER MAIS Oftalmologia underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. Patients who were diagnosed with cataract with indications for phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation received the Catquest-9SF questionnaire before and after surgery at 30 days and 1 year.
RESULTS: A total of 133 patients were recruited, but 32 patients were lost to follow-up; finally, data from 101 patients (48 men, 53 women) were analyzed. The crude variance explained by the data was 69.9%, and the unexplained variance in the first contrast was 2.39 eigenvalues (>2); thus, these results are different from those expected from random data. The people separation index was 2.95 (>2), and the people trust value was 0.9 (>0.8). These indices were evaluated in the assessment of skill levels. Visual acuity was the main variable that correlated with the Catquest score.
CONCLUSIONS: The Catquest-9SF translated into Portuguese proved to be a one-dimensional and psychometrically valid tool to assess visual dysfunction in patients with cataract, and it is successful in objectively quantifying improvements after surgery. The results of this tool could be predictive and concordant of visual acuity improvement.
Keywords: Cataract extraction; Visual acuity; Surveys and questionnaires; Quality of life; Patient reported outcome measures
PURPOSE: To compare the 3-month results of treatment with 20% autologous serum or combination treatment with preservative-free artificial tears and 0.05% cyclosporine in patients with dry eye disease due to primary Sjögren’s syndrome.
METHODS: A total of 130 eyes of 65 patients with newly diagnosed dry eye disease due to primary Sjögren’s syndrome were included in the study. The patients were divided into two treatment groups: 66 eyes of 33 patients were assigned to the autologous serum treatment group, and 64 eyes of 32 patients were assigned to the combination treatment group. Schirmer test, tear break-up time and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores were recorded at pretreatment and at 3 months of treatment.
RESULTS: At 3 months of treatment, the mean Schirmer value and the mean tear break-up time were significantly higher in the combination treatment group (p<0.0001 and p=0.034, respectively). The OSDI score at 3 months was significantly lower in the autologous serum Group (p=0.004). When the two groups were evaluated separately, the improvements in Schirmer, tear break-up time test, and OSDI scores from before to after treatment were statistically significant: p<0.0001, p<0.001, and p<0.0001, respectively, for the authologus serum Group, and p<0.0001, p<0.001, and p<0.0001, respectively, for the combination treatment group.
CONCLUSIONS: In short-term treatment of dry eye disease due to primary Sjögren’s syndrome, treatment with autologous serum was significantly superior to -combination treatment with preservative-free artificial tears and 0.05% cyclosporine in terms of improvement in OSDI scores. Improvements in Schirmer test and tear break-up time scores were significantly superior in the group treated with preservative-free artificial tears and 0.05% cyclosporine.
Keywords: Sjögren’s syndrome/complications; Dry eye syndrome/etiology; Dry eye syndrome/drug therapy; Cyclosporine/therapeutic use; Lubricant eye drops
We present an unusual case of a 13-year-old male pediatric patient with a diagnosis of sphenoid sinus mucocele. The patient suffered a progressive loss of visual acuity over three months followed by a total recovery of his visual acuity after surgery. The patient presented at the emergency room complaining of progressive loss of visual acuity in his left eye which decreased to hand motion over the preceding months. Imaging studies revealed a cystic mass, suggestive of sphenoid sinus mucocele, which was causing compressive optic neuropathy and proptosis. The patient was scheduled for a sphenoidectomy and resection of the mass. Three days after surgery, the patient’s visual acuity in the left eye was 20/20, indicating complete recovery from his symptoms. We suggest that the excellent outcome in this patient may be attributable to his age. His ongoing physical development might have been the decisive factor in the recovery of his visual acuity following compressive optic neuropathy secondary to sphenoid sinus mucocele. Further research is needed to verify this proposed explanation.
Keywords: Sphenoid sinus; Mucocele; Orbital diseases; Optic nerve diseases; Nervous system diseases; Neuroimaging; Visual acuity; Child
A 60-year-old-male with refractory relapsed multiple myeloma presented with redness, pain, foreign body sensation, and blurred vision in both eyes that gradually increased after his third belantamab mafotodin infusion. Biomicroscopy revealed bilateral microcyst-like epithelial changes and epithelial crystal-like deposits, whereas in vivo confocal microscopy revealed intraepithelial and subepithelial hyperreflective deposits in corneal epithelium. Belantamab mafodotin therapy was discontinued for seven weeks due to corneal toxicity, which cleared progressively. We aim to demonstrate belantamab mafodotin-related corneal toxicity that may be detected using slit lamp and in vivo confocal biomicroscopy.
Keywords: Multiple myeloma; Belantamab mafodotin; Confocal microscopy; Cornea; Drug-related side effects and adverse reactions
PURPOSE: To describe the implementation process and the preliminary results of a surveillance system for healthcare-associated endophthalmitis.
METHODS: This is a case study of the implementation of a surveillance system for healthcare-associated endophthalmitis. The system for healthcare-associated endophthalmitis is a structured system that enables surveillance of cases of healthcare-associated endophthalmitis after intraocular procedures, developed and coordinated by the Division of Hospital Infection at the State Health Department, São Paulo, Brazil. The implementation process included a pilot phase, followed by a scaling-up phase. Data were reported monthly to the Division of Hospital Infection by participating healthcare facilities that performed intraocular procedures in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, from September 2017 to December 2019.
RESULTS: Among the 1,483 eligible healthcare facilities, 175 engaged in the study (participation rate of 11.8%), reporting 222,728 intraocular procedures performed, of which 164,207 were cataract surgery and 58,521 were intravitreal injections. The overall incidence rate of endophthalmitis was reported to be 0.05% (n=105; 80 cases after cataract surgery and 25 cases after intravitreal injections). The incidence rates for healthcare facilities ranged from 0.02% to 4.55%. Most cases were caused by gram-positive bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus spp. In 36 (46.2%) of the cases, there was no bacterial growth; no sample was collected in 28 (26.7%) cases. This system for healthcare-associated endophthalmitis enabled the identification of an outbreak of four cases of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injections.
CONCLUSION: The system for healthcare-associated endophthalmitis proved to be operationally viable and efficient for monitoring cases of endophthalmitis at the state level.
Keywords: Epidemiological monitoring; Endophthalmitis; Delivery of healthcare; Health surveys; Ophthalmologic surgical procedures
Purpose: To compare the long-term ocular findings of children that were operated of congenital cataract before the age of two and that received an intraoperative intracameral triamcinolone injection or used postoperative oral prednisolone to modulate ocular inflammation.
Methods: All patients who had previously participated in a clinical trial that analyzed the 1-year surgical outcomes of congenital cataract surgery utilizing intracameral triamcinolone (study group) or oral prednisolone (control group) were eligible to participate in this prospective cohort research. Patients’ medical records were reviewed, and the children underwent a complete ophthalmologic exam on final follow-up. Biomicroscopic findings, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, the need for additional surgical interventions, and findings compatible with glaucoma were the primary end measures.
Results: Twenty-six eyes (26 patients) were included (study group = 11 eyes; control group = 15 eyes). The mean follow-up was 8.2 ± 1.2 years and 8.1 ± 1.7 years in the study and control groups, respectively (p=0.82). All eyes presented a centered intraocular lens. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with regards to the presence of posterior synechia (p=0.56), intraocular pressure (p=0.49), or central corneal thickness (p=0.21). None of the eyes fulfilled the glaucoma diagnostic criteria, presented secondary visual axis obscuration, or were reoperated.
Conclusion: The long-term ocular findings of children that underwent congenital cataract surgery and received an intraoperative intracameral triamcinolone injection were similar to those that used postoperative oral prednisolone to modulate ocular inflammation. This suggests that intracameral triamcinolone may substitute oral prednisolone in congenital cataract surgery, facilitating the postoperative treatment regimen and compliance.
Keywords: Congenital cataract; Triamcinolone; Prednisolone; Steroids; Postoperative complications; Children; Cataract
Purpose: To evaluate the quality of life and stress level related to visual function following pediatric cataract surgery in a Brazilian public hospita
Methods: This prospective study analyzed children aged 6-14 years old who underwent cataract surgery. The Childhood Stress Scale and Children’s Visual Function Questionnaire (CVFQ) were used to assess stress levels and quality of life, respectively. Both instruments were applied by two psychologists beforeand after the surgery. Eye examination was performed by two ophthalmologists. Preoperative and postoperative data were compared.
Results: In total, 23 children (32 eyes) were enrolled in the study, of which 9 had bilateral cataracts. The average age group at the time of surgery was 9.65 ± 2.26 (6-14) years old. One month after the surgery, the spherical equivalent was -0.90 ± 1.66D, and the corrected distance visual acuity was 0.13 ± 0.10 (0-0.3) LogMAR in bilateral cases and 0.50 ± 0.39 (0-1.3) LogMAR in unilateral cases (p<0.01). According to the Childhood Stress Scale, 77.7% of the bilateral cases and 57.1% of the unilateral cases had stable stress levels, and 34.7% of the children improved their stress level. The analysis of the CVFQ was based on scores for general health, general vision health, competence, personality, and treatment. After cataract surgery, 78.2% of the patients had improved or maintained CVFQ scores in the general health domain; 82.6%, general vision health; 95.6%, competence; 56.5%, personality; and 78.2%, treatment.
Conclusion: Pediatric cataract surgery improves the visual function and the quality of life even in patients undergoing surgical procedures, without increasing the stress levels.
Keywords: Cataract; Cataract extraction; Adverse childhood experiences; Quality of life; Child
Purpose: The possible variability in diagnostic test results is a statistical feature of dry eye disease patients. The clinician should consider tear film variations over time since the timing of tear film measurements is important for proper diagnosis. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the inter-week variation of osmolarity measurement in healthy and dry eye disease participants.
Methods: Based on the Dry Eye Workshop II (DEWS-II) diagnostic methodology report criteria, a battery of tests (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] questionnaire, breakup time, and corneal staining) was administered to rule out the presence of dry eye disease. A total of 40 qualified volunteers were recruited into two groups: with only 20 healthy and 20 dry eye disease participants. The inter-week variation of osmolarity in the two groups was measured using a TearLab osmometer in two sessions one-week apart. The differences between the results were calculated.
Results: There were no significant differences in osmolarity between the two sessions for either the healthy (paired t-test; p=0.085) or dry eye disease (paired t-test; p=0.093) participants. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between the means and differences in either session on healthy (Pearson correlation: r=0.020; p=0.935) or dry eye disease (Pearson correlation: r=-0.022; p=0.928) participants. In session 1, there was a significant difference in osmolarity values between groups (unpaired t-test; p=0.001), but no difference was found in session 2 (unpaired t-test; p=0.292).
Conclusions: The present study discovered no inter-week variation in the tear film osmolarity of healthy and dry eye disease participants classified based on the DEWS-II criteria.
Keywords: Osmolar concentration; Tears; Dry eye syndromes; Diagnostic techniques, ophthalmological
A 69-year-old female was referred with sudden unilateral painless decreased vision that began 2 days after uncomplicated cataract surgery in the left eye. Visual acuity was hand motion and biomicroscopy showed a mild anterior chamber reaction, no hypopyon, and an intraocular lens that had been placed within the capsular bag. A dilated fundus examination revealed optic disk edema, widespread deep and superficial intraretinal hemorrhages, retinal ischemia, and macular edema. A cardiological evaluation was normal and thrombophilia tests were negative. After surgery, prophylactic vancomycin (1mg/0.1ml) had been injected intracamerally. The patient was diagnosed with hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis likely secondary to vancomycin hypersensitivity. Recognition of this entity is important to ensure early treatment and the use of intracameral vancomycin in the fellow eye should be avoided after cataract surgery.
Keywords: Antibiotic prophylaxis; Cataract removal; Drug hypersensitivity; Macular edema; Retinal vasculitis
Purpose: Stargardt-like phenotype has been described as associated with pathogenic variants besides the ABCA4 gene. This study aimed to describe four cases with retinal appearance of Stargardt disease phenotypes and unexpected molecular findings.
Methods: This report reviewed medical records of four patients with macular dystrophy and clinical features of Stargardt disease. Ophthalmic examination, fundus imaging, and next-generation sequencing were performed to evaluate pathogenic variants related to the phenotypes.
Results: Patients presented macular atrophy and pigmentary changes suggesting Stargardt disease. The phenotypes of the two patients were associated with autosomal dominant inheritance pattern genes (RIMS1 and CRX) and in the other two patients were associated with recessive dominant inheritance pattern genes (CRB1 and RDH12) with variants predicted to be pathogenic.
Conclusion: Macular dystrophies may have phenotypic similarities to Stargardt-like phenotype associated with other genes besides the classic ones.
Keywords: Stargardt disease; Genetic association studies; Phenotype; Inheritance patterns; High-throughput nucleotide sequencing; Macular degeneration; Retinal dystrophies; Genetic diseases
This report presents the optical coherence tomography findings and a new NEU1 mutation in bilateral macular cherry-red spot syndrome associated with sialidosis type 1. A 19-year-old patient with a macular cherry-red spot underwent metabolic and genetic analyses supported by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Fundus examination revealed bilateral macular cherry-red spot. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed increased hyperreflectivity in the retinal inner layers and the photoreceptor layer in the foveal region. The genetic analysis detected a new NEU1 mutation, which caused type I sialidosis. In cases with a macular cherry-red spot, sialidosis should be included in the differential diagnosis, and NEU1 mutation should be screened. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography alone is not sufficient in the differential diagnosis because childhood metabolic diseases may exhibit similar signs.
Keywords: Mucolipidosis; Myoclonus; Sialidosis type 1; Tomography; optical coherence; Gene NEU1.
The peripherin gene (PRPH2) mutation is associated with photoreceptor cell dysfunction as well as in several inherited retinal dystrophies. The PRPH2 mutation c.582-1G>A is a rare variant reported in retinitis pigmentosa and pattern dystrophy. Here Case 1 was of a 54-year-old woman with bilateral atrophy of the perifoveal retinal pigmentary epithelium and choriocapillaris with central foveolar respect. Autofluorescence and fluorescein angiography revealed perifoveal atrophy of the retinal pigmentary epithelium with an annular window effect without the “dark choroid” sign. Case 2 (mother of Case 1) presented with extensive atrophy of the retinal pigmentary epithelium and choriocapillaris. PRPH2 was evaluated and the c.582-1G>A mutation was identified in heterozygosity. An advanced adult-onset benign concentric annular macular dystrophy diagnosis was thereby proposed. The c.582-1G>A mutation is poorly known and not present in all common genomic databases. This case report is the first one to report a c.582-1G>A mutation associated with benign concentric annular macular dystrophy.
Keywords: PRPH2 gene; Mutation; Macular degeneration; Stargardt disease.
Purpose: This study aimed to assess and interpret how vitreoretinal surgeons use surgical videos available on social media as complementary learning tools to improve, review, or update their abilities, considering their different levels of expertise.
Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, an online survey was sent to vitreoretinal specialists and fellows.
Results: This survey included 258 participants, of whom 53.88% had been in practice for >10 years (senior surgeons), 29.07% between 4 and 10 years (young surgeons), and 17.05% for <3 years (surgeons in training). Retinal surgical videos available on social media were used by 98.84% of the participants (95% confidence interval, 97.52%-100%). YouTube (91%) was the most common source of videos, and surgeons in training watched more videos on YouTube than senior surgeons. Regarding the preferred method when preparing for a procedure, 49.80% of the participants watched surgical videos available on social media, 26.27% preferred to “consult colleagues”, and 18.82% preferred to seek information in scientific articles. Participants valued the most the “image quality” (88%) and presence of “surgical tips and tricks” (85%).
Conclusion: Surgical videos can provide benefits in acquiring strategic skills, such as decision-making, surgical planning, and situational awareness. Retina surgeons used them as teaching aids regardless of their level of expertise, despite being relatively more valuable to surgeons in training or young surgeons.
Keywords: Learning; Education, distance; Social media; Vitreoretinal surgery; Surgeons; Surveys & questionnaires
A 42-year-old woman presented with bilateral proptosis, chemosis, leg pain, and vision loss. Orbital, chorioretinal, and multi-organ involvement of Erdheim-Chester disease, a rare non-Langerhans histiocytosis, with a negative BRAF mutation was diagnosed based on clinical, radiological, and pathological findings. Interferon-alpha-2a (IFNα-2a) was started, and her clinical condition improved. However, 4 months later, she had vision loss with a history of IFNα-2a cessation. The same therapy was administered, and her clinical condition improved. The Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare chronic histiocytic proliferative disease that requires a multidisciplinary approach and can be fatal if left untreated because of multisystemic involvements.
Keywords: Hemic and lymphatic diseases; Histiocytosis; Histiocytosis, non-Langerhans cell; Erdheim-Chester disease; Retinal diseases; Orbital diseases; Humans; Case reports.
Purpose: To compare the differences between the apparent and actual chord µ.
Methods: In this prospective, comparative, non-randomized, and non-interventional study, imaging examinations using Pentacam and the HD Analyzer were performed in the same room under the same scotopic conditions. The inclusion criteria were patients aged 21-71 years, able to provide informed consent, myopia up to 4D, and anterior topographic astigmatism up to 1D. Patients using contact lenses, those with previous eye diseases or surgeries, corneal opacities, corneal tomographic changes, or suspected keratoconus were excluded.
Results: Altogether, 116 eyes of 58 patients were analyzed. The patients’ mean age was 30.69 (±7.85) years. In the correlation analyses, Pearson’s correlation coefficient of 0.647 indicates a moderate positive linear relationship between apparent and actual chord µ. The mean actual and apparent chord µ were 226.21 ± 128.53 and 278.66 ± 123.90 µm, respectively, with a mean difference of 52.45 µm (p=0.01). The analysis of mean pupillary diameter resulted in 5.76 mm using the HD Analyzer and 3.31 mm using the Pentacam.
Conclusions: We found a correlation between the two measurement devices, and even though we found considerable differences, both can be used in daily practice. Given their differences, we should respect their peculiarities as well.
Keywords: Optical imaging; Visual perception; Pupil; Anterior eye segment; Cornea; Diagnostic techniques, ophthalmological
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the pre-sence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in the ocular surface of individuals clinically suspected of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and determine the accuracy of different approaches of molecular testing on the ocular surface based on the nasopharyngeal positivity status for COVID-19.
Methods: A total of 152 individuals with suspected COVID-19 symptoms who simultaneously underwent nasopharyngeal and two different tear film collection techniques for quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were included. Tears were collected and randomized: one eye had the filter strip for the Schirmer test and the contralateral eye had conjunctival swab/cytology in the inferior fornix. All patients underwent slit lamp biomicroscopy. The accuracy of various ocular surface collection techniques used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was determined.
Results: Of the 152 patients enrolled in the study, 86 (56.6%) had COVID-19 confirmed by nasopharyngeal PCR. Both tear film collection techniques detected viral particles: the Schirmer test was positive in 16.3% (14/86) and the conjunctival swab/cytology in 17.4% (15/86), with no statistically significant differences. No positive ocular tests were found among those with negative nasopharyngeal PCR tests. The overall agreement of the ocular tests was 92.7%, and in combination, the sensitivity would increase to 23.2%. The mean cycle threshold values in the nasopharyngeal, Schirmer, and conjunctival swab/cytology tests were 18.2 ± 5.3, 35.6 ± 1.4, and 36.4 ± 3.9, respectively. Compared with the nasopharyngeal test, the Schirmer (p=0.001) and conjunctival swab/cytology (p<0.001) tests had significantly different Ct values.
Conclusion: The Schirmer (16.3%) and conjunctival swab (17.4%) tests were comparably capable of detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the ocular surface by RT-PCR accurately based on nasopharyngeal status and demonstrated indistinct sensitivity and specificity. Simultaneous specimen sampling and processing from the nasopharyngeal, Schirmer, and conjunctival swab/cytology tests demonstrated significantly lower viral load in both ocular surface approaches than in the nasopharyngeal test. Ocular manifestations detected by slit lamp biomicroscopy were not associated with ocular RT-PCR positivity.
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Conjunctiva; Tears; Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; RNA; viral.
Purpose: Microperimetry has been used for several years as a form of visual function testing in patients with retinal diseases. Normal microperimetry values obtained with microperimeter MP-3 have not yet been fully published, and baseline values for topographic macular sensitivity and correlations with age and sex are needed to establish degrees of impairment. This study aimed to determine values for light sensitivity thresholds and fixation stability using the MP-3 in healthy individuals.
Methods: Thirty-seven healthy volunteers (age, 28-68 years), underwent full-threshold microperimetry using a 4-2 (fast) staircase strategy with the standard Goldmann III stimulus size and 68 test points positioned identically to those in the Humphrey Field Analyzer 10-2 test grid. The fixation stability was simultaneously recorded during the microperimetry test. The relationship between global sensitivity and age was calculated using linear regression analysis.
Results: Microperimetry was performed on 37 participants (74 eyes). The global mean sensitivity was 29.01 ± 1.44 (range, 26-31) dB. The mean central sensitivity at 2° measured by the MP-3 was 28.5 ± 1.77 dB in the right eye (OD) and 28.75 ± 1.98 dB in the left eye (OS). The total median fixation stability values within 2° and 4° were 80% and 96%, respectively. The linear regression analysis also revealed an age-related global sensitivity decline per year of -0.051 dB ± 0.018 (OD) and -0.078 dB ± 0.021 (OS).
Conclusions: Microperimetry performed with the MP-3 allows for an automatic, accurate, and topography-specific examination of retinal sensitivity thresholds. The results of this study provide a normal and age-matched database of MP-3 microperimetry.
Keywords: Visual fields; Visual field tests; Retina; Microperimetry; Age.
Purpose: To explore the therapeutic effects of orthokeratology lens combined with 0.01% atropine eye drops on juvenile myopia.
Methods: A total of 340 patients with juvenile myopia (340 eyes) treated from 2018 to December 2020 were divided into the control group (170 cases with 170 eyes, orthokeratology lens) and observation group (170 cases with 170 eyes, orthokeratology lens combined with 0.01% atropine eye drops). The best-corrected distance visual acuity, best-corrected near visual acuity, diopter, axial length, amplitude of accommodation, bright pupil diameter, dark pupil diameter, tear-film lipid layer thickness, and tear break-up time were measured before treatment and after 1 year of treatment. The incidence of adverse reactions was observed.
Results: Compared with the values before treatment, the spherical equivalent degree was significantly improved by 0.22 (0.06, 0.55) D and 0.40 (0.15, 0.72) D in the observation and control groups after the treatment, respectively (p<0.01). After the treatment, the axial length was significantly increased by (0.15 ± 0.12) mm and (0.24 ± 0.11) mm in the observation and control groups, respectively, (p<0.01). After the treatment, the amplitude of accommodation significantly declined in the observation group and was lower than that in the control group, whereas both bright and dark pupil diameters significantly increase and were larger than those in the control group (p<0.01). After the treatment, the tear-film lipid layer thickness and tear break-up time significantly declined in the two groups (p<0.01).
Conclusions: Orthokeratology lens combined with 0.01% atropine eye drops can synergistically enhance the control effect on juvenile myopia with high safety.
Keywords: Atropine; Myopia; Orthokeratologic procedures; Axial length; eye; Corneal topography; Visual acuity; Contact lenses.
Purpose: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is extremely uncommon in adults with an autoimmune pathophysiology. Because of the rarity of the syndrome, international recognition of opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome needs to be improved urgently. Therefore, the goal of this study was to raise the awareness of the opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome and help doctors in better diagnosing and using immunotherapy.
Methods: We present a case study of an adult-onset case of idiopathic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome characterized by spontaneous arrhythmic multidirectional conjugate eye movements, myoclonus, ataxia, sleep disorders, and intense fear. Additionally, we conduct a literature search and summarize the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome.
Results: Immunotherapies successfully treated the patient’s opsoclonus, myoclonus, and ataxia. Further, the article also includes an update summary of the opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome.
Conclusion: The prevalence of residual sequela in adults with opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome is low. Early diagnosis and treatment may result in a better prognosis. Furthermore, combined immunotherapy is expected to reduce the incidence of refractory and reoccurring opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome.
Keywords: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome/diagnosis; Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome/drug therapy; Immunotherapy/methods; Human
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the classification performance of pretrained convolutional neural network models or architectures using fundus image dataset containing eight disease labels.
Methods: A publicly available ocular disease intelligent recognition database has been used for the diagnosis of eight diseases. This ocular disease intelligent recognition database has a total of 10,000 fundus images from both eyes of 5,000 patients for the following eight diseases: healthy, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, cataract, age-related macular degeneration, hypertension, myopia, and others. Ocular disease classification performances were investigated by constructing three pretrained convolutional neural network architectures including VGG16, Inceptionv3, and ResNet50 models with adaptive moment optimizer. These models were implemented in Google Colab, which made the task straight-forward without spending hours installing the environment and supporting libraries. To evaluate the effectiveness of the models, the dataset was divided into 70%, 10%, and 20% for training, validation, and testing, respectively. For each classification, the training images were augmented to 10,000 fundus images.
Results: ResNet50 achieved an accuracy of 97.1%; sensitivity, 78.5%; specificity, 98.5%; and precision, 79.7%, and had the best area under the curve and final score to classify cataract (area under the curve = 0.964, final score = 0.903). By contrast, VGG16 achieved an accuracy of 96.2%; sensitivity, 56.9%; specificity, 99.2%; precision, 84.1%; area under the curve, 0.949; and final score, 0.857.
Conclusions: These results demonstrate the ability of the pretrained convolutional neural network architectures to identify ophthalmological diseases from fundus images. ResNet50 can be a good architecture to solve problems in disease detection and classification of glaucoma, cataract, hypertension, and myopia; Inceptionv3 for age-related macular degeneration, and other disease; and VGG16 for normal and diabetic retinopathy.
Keywords: Neural networks; computer; Deep-learning; Image processing; computer-assisted; VGG16; Inceptionv3; ResNet50; Fundus oculi; Eye diseases.
Purpose: This study aimed to report an experiment designed to determine anatomical changes in porcine corneas following placement of a novel polymer implant into the cornea.
Methods: An ex vivo porcine eye model was used. A novel type I collagen-based vitrigel implant (6 mm in diameter) was shaped with an excimer laser on the posterior surface to create three planoconcave shapes. Implants were inserted into a manually dissected stromal pocket at a depth of approximately 200 µm. Three treatment groups were defined: group A (n=3), maximal ablation depth 70 µm; Group B (n=3), maximal ablation depth 64 µm; and group C (n=3), maximal ablation depth 104 µm, with a central hole. A control group (D, n=3) was included, in which a stromal pocket was created butbiomaterial was not inserted. Eyes were evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and corneal tomography.
Results: Corneal tomography showed a trend for a decreased mean keratometry in all four groups. Optical coherence tomography showed corneas with implants placed within the anterior stroma and visible flattening, whereas the corneas in the control group did not qualitatively change shape.
Conclusions: The novel planoconcave biomaterial implant described herein could reshape the cornea in an ex vivo model, resulting in the flattening of the cornea. Further studies are needed using in vivo animal models to confirm such findings.
Keywords: Cornea; Corneal surgery, laser; Corneal topography; Corneal stroma; Prostheses and implants; Lasers excimer; Biocompatible materials; Animals; Swine
Purpose: To longitudinally compare isolated structural parameters obtained using RTVue optical coherence tomography in patients with glaucoma and suspected glaucoma with stable visual fields.
Methods: All patients were required to have a reliable SITA Standard 24-2 Humphrey Visual Field test. Visual field stability was defined as having <5 points with p<5% and/or having no points with p<1% and/or p<0.05% in the glaucoma progression analysis comparison graph. Furthermore, the glaucoma assessment strategy was used in optical coherence tom ography.
Results: The study included 75 eyes from 75 patients, 43 of which had glaucoma and 32 had suspected glaucoma. The mean visual field intervals were 29.57 ± 9.65 months between the first and third tests. No visual field parameter variations (mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, and visual field index) and no retinal nerve fiber layer or optic disk parameter variations between the first and third tests were observed (p>0.05 for all), and no retinal nerve fiber layer parameter variations throughout the study were observed, except for optic disk parameters presenting with cup volume changes (p=0.004). However, ganglion complex cells presented a progressively decreased average ganglion cell complex parameter, with a variability of -0.98% ± 3.71% (p=0.04) between the first and third tests. By contrast, the global loss volume progressively increased throughout the study, with a variability of 14.71% ± 44.52% (p=0.04) between the first and third tests. The inferior ganglion cell complex parameter was significantly decreased between the first and third tests (p=0.02).
Conclusion:The present findings suggest that patients with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma with stable visual fields may present structural ganglion complex cell progression as assessed using RTVue optical coherence tomography.
Keywords: Imaging diagnosis/methods; Optical disk/pathology; Nervous fibers/pathology; Glaucoma/diagnosis; Tomography, optical coherence
Purpose: To evaluate the influence of atmospheric pressure changes on the behavior of intraocular pressure
of healthy military individuals-students and instructors of the National Navy’s Diving & Rescue School at the “ARC BOLÍVAR” naval base-during a simulated immersion in the hyperbaric chamber of the Naval Hospital of Cartagena.
Methods: A descriptive exploratory study was performed. The intraocular pressure was measured at different atmospheric pressures during 60-min sessions in the hyperbaric chamber while breathing compressed air. The maximum simulated depth was 60 feet. Participants were students and instructors of the Naval Base’s Diving and Rescue Department.
Results: A total of 48 eyes from 24 divers were studied, of which 22 (91.7%) were male. The mean age of the participants was 30.6 (SD=5.5) years, ranging from 23 to 40. No participant had a history of glaucoma or ocular hypertension. The mean base intraocular pressure at sea level was 14 mmHg, which decreased to 13.1 mmHg (decreased by 1.2 mmHg) at 60 feet deep (p=0.0012). However, during the safety stop at 30 feet, the mean IOP kept decreasing until reaching 11.9 mmHg (p<0.001). By the end of the session, the mean intraocular pressure reached 13.1 mmHg, which is inferior and statistically significant when compared with the intraocular pressure base mean (p=0.012).
Conclusions: In healthy individuals, the intraocular pressure decreases when reaching a depth of 60 feet (2.8 absolute atmosphere pressure) and it decreases even more during ascension at 30 feet. Measurements at both points were significantly different when compared with base intraocular pressure. The final intraocular pressure was lower than the baseline intraocular pressure, suggesting a residual and prolonged effect of the atmospheric pressure on intraocular pressure.
Keywords: Atmospheric pressure; Tonometry; Intraocular pressure; Ocular hypertension; Glaucoma; Military personnel
Purposes: To assess the efficacy of botulinum toxin A injection in the treatment of strabismus in patients with neurological impairment and evaluate the factors associated with treatment success.
Methods: The study included 50 patients with strabismus and neurological impairment. In all children, botulinum toxin injection was performed into the appropriate extraocular muscle. The relationship between demographic features, clinical characteristics, and treatment success were analyzed.
Results: In the study group, 34 patients had esotropia, and 16 patients had exotropia. As neurological problems, 36 patients had cerebral palsy, and 14 had hydrocephalus. The average follow-up period was 15.3 ± 7.3 months. The mean number of injections was 1.4 ± 0.6. The mean angle of deviation was 42.5 ± 13.2 PD before the treatment, which decreased to 12.8 ± 11.9 PD after the treatment. Successful motor alignment (orthotropia within 10 PD) was achieved in 60% of the patients. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that esotropic misalignment and shorter duration of strabismus was significantly associated with treatment success in the study group. Patients with esotropia and lower angles of misalignment were more likely to be treated with a single injection.
Conclusion: The use of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of strabismus in children with neurological impairment is a good alternative to conventional surgical therapy with a lower risk of overcorrection. The treatment outcome is better in esodeviations and shorter duration of strabismus, implying an advantage of early treatment.
Keywords: Strabismus; Botulinum toxin; Neurological manifestations; Nervous system diseases; Cerebral palsy; Hydrocephalus; Children
Purpose: To report the clinical findings, treatments, and outcomes in a series of patients with vitreous metastasis from cutaneous melanoma.
Methods: This single-center, retrospective, interventional case series included patients with biopsy-confirmed vitreous metastasis from cutaneous melanoma diagnosed between 1997 and 2020. Standard 23- or 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed for diagnostic sampling. Sclerotomies were treated with double or triple freeze-thaw cryotherapy. Perioperative intravitreal injections of melphalan (32 µg/0.075 mL) were administered, when indicated. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and systemic and ocular treatment responses were reported.
Results: Five eyes of five patients with unilateral vitreous metastasis from cutaneous melanoma were identified. The median age at diagnosis was 84 (range, 37-88) years. The median follow-up after ophthalmic diagnosis was 28 (8.5-36) months; one patient did not have a follow-up. The initial visual acuity ranged from 20/30 to hand motions. Baseline clinical findings included pigmented or non-pigmented cellular infiltration of the vitreous (5/5), anterior segment (4/5), and retina (3/5). Four patients had secondary glaucoma. Systemic therapy included checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy (n=3, all with partial/complete response), systemic chemotherapy (n=2), surgical resection (n=3), and radiation (n=2). The median time from primary diagnosis to vitreous metastasis was 2 (2-15) years. One patient had an active systemic disease at the time of vitreous metastasis. The final visual acuity ranged from 20/40 to no light perception. Ophthalmic treatment included vitrectomy in all five patients, intravitreal administration of melphalan in three, and intravitreal administration of methotrexate in one. One patient required enucleation, and histopathology revealed extensive invasion by melanoma cells.
Conclusions: Vitreous metastasis from cutaneous melanoma can present as a diffuse infiltration of pigmented or non-pigmented cells into the vitreous and may be misdiagnosed as uveitis. Diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy and periodic intravitreal chemotherapy may be indicated.
Keywords: Melanoma; Eye neoplasms; Skin neoplasms; Neoplasm metastasis; Vitreous body; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; Immunotherapy; Intravitreal injections; Melphalan; Methotrexate
Purpose: Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA) was proposed as a promising option for the treatment of acquired lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion. However, this effect was not confirmed by quantitative assessments. This study aimed to assess the effect of hyaluronic acid on the treatment of acquired lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion.
Methods: Eight patients with acquired lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion (13 eyelids) were treated with a single 1 mL injection of hyaluronic acid in the preseptal area of the lower eyelid. Evaluation of symptoms and biomicroscopic exam was performed before and 30 days after hyaluronic acid injection. Quantitative analysis of the lower eyelid position (with and without lid traction) was determined before and 30 days after hyaluronic acid injection through standard photographs analyzed using the ImageJ.
Results: All patients experienced partial improvement of symptoms. The lower eyelid position was significantly lifted after hyaluronic acid injection with a significant reduction of medial and lateral angles, reduction of the margin reflex distance, and total and medial ocular fissure area. However, signs of lid margin inflammation and corneal punctate keratitis persisted.
Conclusion: Hyaluronic acid injected in the pre-septal area of the lower eyelid improved acquired lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion symptoms and significantly lifted the position of the lower eyelid. Further studies, with a large number of participants and a long-term follow-up period, are needed to better determine the permanency of the effects of hyaluronic acid injections on the treatment of acquired lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion.
Keywords: Ectropion; Cicatrix; Eyelids; Skin abnormalities; Hyaluronic acid; Dermal fillers; Injections
Purpose: This clinical study compared autologous serum eye drops diluted with 0.5% methylcellulose and 0.9% saline solution. The subjective criteria for symptom improvement and the objective clinical criteria for response to therapy were evaluated.
Methods: This longitudinal prospective study enrolled 23 patients (42 eyes) with persistent epithelial defects or severe dry eye disease refractory to conventional therapy who had been using autologous serum 20% prepared with methylcellulose for >6 months and started on autologous serum diluted in 0.9% saline solution. The control and intervention groups consisted of the same patients under alternate treatments. The subjective criteria for symptom relief were evaluated using the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire. The objective clinical criteria were evaluated through a slit-lamp examination of the ocular surface, tear breakup time, corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer’s test, rose Bengal test, and tear meniscus height. These criteria were evaluated before the diluent was changed and after 30, 90, and 180 days.
Results: In total, 42 eyes were analyzed before and after 6 months using autologous serum diluted with 0.9% saline. No significant differences were found in the subjective criteria, tear breakup time, tear meniscus, corneal fluorescein staining, or rose Bengal test. Schirmer’s test scores significantly worsened at 30 and 90 days (p=0.008). No complications or adverse effects were observed.
Conclusions: This study reinforces the use of autologous serum 20% as a successful treatment for severe dry eye disease resistant to conventional therapy. Autologous serum in 0.9% saline was not inferior to the methylcellulose formulation and is much more cost-effective.
Keywords: Dry eye syndromes; Keratoconjunctivitis sicca; Sjögren’s syndrome; Saline solution; Ophthalmic solutions; Methylcellulose
Purpose: This study aimed to compare anterior-chamber parameters acquired by a swept-source anterior-segment optical coherence tomography before and after laser peripheral iridotomy.
Methods: This study prospectively evaluated 14 patients with primary-angle closure and six patients with primary-angle closure glaucoma. Gonioscopy and anterior-segment optical coherence tomography using the DRI OCT Triton® were performed before and after laser peripheral iridotomy. Anterior-segment optical coherence tomography parameters were studied using scleral spur as reference: angle opening distance at 250, 500, and 750 µm, trabecular-iris space at 500 µm, trabecular-iris angle, trabecular-iris contact length, and iris curvature.
Result: Anterior-segment optical coherence tomography identified 61% of the patients with two or more quadrants closed. Gonioscopy identified more closed angles than anterior-segment optical coherence tomography before laser peripheral iridotomy. In angle parameters, only the angle opening distance of 250 µm at the nasal quadrant was not significantly increased after laser peripheral iridotomy. The iris curvature and trabecular-iris contact length showed a significant reduction induced by the laser procedure. Even in eyes in which gonioscopy did not identify angular widening after laser peripheral iridotomy (n=7), the angle opening distance of 750 µm increased (nasal, 0.15 ± 0.10 mm to 0.27 ± 0.16 mm, p=0.01; temporal, 0.14 ± 0.11 mm to 0.25 ± 0.12 mm, p=0.001) and the iris curvature decreased (nasal, 0.25 ± 0.04 mm vs. 0.11 ± 0.07 mm, p=0.02; temporal, 0.25 ± 0.07 mm vs. 0.14 ± 0.08 mm, p=0.007).
Conclusion: Anterior-chamber changes induced by laser peripheral iridotomy could be quantitatively evaluated and documented by DRI OCT Triton®.
Keywords: Gonioscopy; Tomography, Optical coherence; Anterior eye segment; Glaucoma, angle-closure; Iridectomy; Laser therapy; Lasers
Purpose: Intravitreal antiangiogenic therapy is currently the most invasive ophthalmic procedure performed worldwide. This study aimed to describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients undergoing intravitreal antiangiogenic therapy in a tertiary referral hospital in Brazil.
Methods: This cross-sectional, retrospective, and observational study analyzed medical records of patients who received intravitreal injections of antiangiogenic agents for the treatment of retinal diseases at the ophthalmology outpatient clinic in the Hospital das Clínicas at Unicamp between January and December 2020.
Results: The study included 429 patients and 514 eyes. The study population was predominantly male (51.28%), white (80.89%), between 50 and 80 years old (mean age, 60.92 years), had complete or incomplete first-grade education (56.88%), and did not belong to the Regional Health Department of which Campinas is a part (78.55%). Bevacizumab was the most commonly used intravitreal injectable medicine (79.38%), pro re nata was the most commonly used treatment regimen (90.27%), and macular edema was the most prevalent pathology indicative of treatment (60.12%), with diabetes etiology accounting for 48.25%. The average number of injections per patient was 3.83, with the macular neovascularization group and the pro re nata group having the highest and lowest with five and three injections, respectively. Treatment adherence was associated with the patient’s pathology, and the macular edema (52.24%) and macular neovascularization (49.48%) groups had the lowest adherence rates.
Conclusion: This study evaluated the epidemiological and clinical profile of patients undergoing antiangiogenic therapy in a high-complexity public hospital, which is fundamental for a better understanding of the demand for ophthalmic reference service in Brazil, and the analysis of functional results and user adherence profile promotes optimization of indications and leverages the benefits of intravitreal therapy.
Keywords: Retina; Intravitreal injections; Angiogenesis inhibitors; Macular edema; Retinal neovascularization
Purpose: The regulatory effect of microRNA on diseases has been confirmed. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of microRNA-210-3p in age-related cataracts and assess the effect of abnormal miR-210-3p expressions on H2O2-induced SAR01/04 cells.
Methods: Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was performed to assess the levels of miR-210-3p in aqueous humor samples. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was employed to assess the discrimination ability of miR-210-3p between patients with age-related cataracts and healthy people, and Pearson correlation analysis was used to identify the correlation between miR-210-3p and oxidative stress indices such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malonaldehyde. Cell counting kit-8 assay and Transwell assay were used to estimate the biological function of H2O2-induced age-related cataract cell model. The levels of oxidative stress indices such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and malonaldehyde were measured to evaluate the degree of oxidative stress damage in the age-related cataract cell model. The relationship between miR-210-3p and its target gene was verified by luciferase reporter gene analysis.
Results: The miR-210-3p expression was elevated in the aqueous humor of patients with age-related cataracts. A high miR-210-3p expression showed a high diagnostic value for age-related cataracts and was significantly associated with the level of oxidative stress markers in patients with age-related cataracts. The inhibition of miR-210-3p can reverse oxidative stress stimulation and adverse effects on H2O2-induced cell function.
Conclusions: The results suggested that miR-210-3p could promote cell viability, cell migration, and oxidative stress by targeting autophagy-related gene 7 in in vitro age-related cataract cell model.
Keywords: Cataract; Age factors; Aqueous humor; MiR-210-3p; Oxidative stress; Autophagy-related protein 7
To report a unique case of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) in a patient with positive serology for Bartonella, presenting with ocular signs and symptoms not attributable to other diseases. A 27-year-old woman presented with decreased visual acuity in both eyes. Multimodal fundus image analysis was performed. A color fundus photograph of both eyes revealed peripapillary and macular yellow-white placoid lesions. The fundus autofluorescence of both eyes demonstrated hypo- and hyperautofluorescence of the macular lesions. Fluorescein angiography showed early-stage hypofluorescence and late staining of placoid lesions in both eyes. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of both eyes revealed irregular elevations in the retinal pigment epithelium with the disruption of the ellipsoid zone on the topography of macular lesions. At 3 months after the treatment initiation for Bartonella infection, the placoid lesions became atrophic and hyperpigmented, and SD-OCT revealed loss of both the outer retinal layers and retinal pigment epithelium on the topography of macular lesions in both eyes.
Keywords: Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy; Bartonella quintana; Bartonella henselae; Cat-scratch disease.
Orbital decompression is widely performed for the management of proptosis for cosmetic and functional cases of Graves orbitopathy. The main side effects include dry eye, diplopia, and numbness. Blindness after orbital decompression is extremely rare. The mechanisms of vision loss after decompression are not well described in the literature. Considering the devastating effect and rarity of this complication, this study presented two cases of blindness after orbital decompression. In both cases, vision loss was provoked by slight bleeding in the orbital apex.
Keywords: Graves ophthalmopathy; Orbital diseases/surgery; Decompression, surgical; Blindness; Humans; Case reports
Purpose: This study aimed to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of victims of firework-related ocular trauma treated at the ophthalmologic emergency departments of two reference centers in Pernambuco, Brazil, and to identify risk factors related to poor visual prognosis.
Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of patients admitted in emergency departments with a report of firework-related trauma between January 2012 and December 2018. Data collected included patient’s age, sex, place of origin, month and year of the accident, ocular structures affected, characteristics of the injuries, and type of treatment that patients received. For patients who were followed for >30 days, the final visual acuity and patient’s origin were analyzed.
Results: Three hundred and seventy eyes from 314 patients were included, of which 248 (79.0%) were male and 160 (51.0%) were from the metropolitan region of Recife. The mean patient age was 25.6 ± 18.8 years. In 56 (17.8%) patients, the ocular trauma was bilateral. A total of 152 (48.4%) cases occurred in June. The most affected sites were the eyelids in 91 (24.6%) eyes and ocular surface in 252 (68.1%). Surgical treatment was required in 87 (23.5%) eyes. After clinical and surgical management, 37 (10.0%) eyes presented final visual acuity of <20/400. Of these, 34 (91.9%) eyes were from patients from the countryside or from another state. Patients from the countryside presented higher risk of developing blindness after a firework trauma than those from the metropolitan area (odds ratio of 5.46).
Conclusions: Victims of firework-related ocular trauma were mostly male, from the metropolitan region of Pernambuco state and mainly pediatric patients or economically active. Those coming from the countryside and other states had higher risk of developing blindness
Keywords: Emergencies; Eye burns/epidemiology; Fires; Blast injuries; Explosive agents
Purpose: This study aimed to determine closure rates of large idiopathic macular holes treated with pars plana vitrectomy and 360-degree pedicled inverted internal limiting membrane flap without face-down posturing and define visual improvement, types of macular hole closure, and external retina integrity as secondary outcomes.
Methods: This retrospective case series analyzed all patients who were treated by vitrectomy, 360-degree pedicled inverted internal limiting membrane flap, and gas tamponade, without face-down posturing postoperatively. Age, sex, time of visual acuity reduction, other ocular pathologies, and lens status were collected. The best-corrected visual acuity and optical coherence tomography results were recorded during pre- and postoperative follow-up examinations (15 days and 2 months after surgery).
Results: This study enrolled 20 eyes of 19 patients, and the mean age was 66 years. Optical coherence tomography performed 2 months after surgery revealed hole closure in 19 (95%) eyes. The median best-corrected visual acuity improved from +1.08 preoperatively to +0.66 LogMAR 2 months postoperatively (p<0.001), with a median of 20 letters of visual improvement (0.4 LogMAR) on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart. V (47.36%)- and U (52.63%)-types of closure were observed.
Conclusion: The 360-degree pedicled inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique, without face-down posturing, provided a high closure rate (95%), external layer recovery, and V- and U-type foveal closure contours, in addition to visual improvement in most cases of large macular holes (even macular holes >650 μm). This technique may be a viable alternative to patients in whom traditional postoperative face-down positioning for large macular hole treatment is not possible.
Keywords: Retinal perforations; Postoperative care; Vitrectomy; Vitreoretinal surgery
The occurrence of corneal ectasia after photorefractive keratectomy is a rare but serious complication of refractive surgery. Possible risk factors are not well assessed, but a probable reason is the failure to detect keratoconus preoperatively. In this report, we describe a case of corneal ectasia after photorefractive keratectomy in a patient who presented a suspicious tomography pattern preoperatively but had no degenerative alterations associated with pathologic keratoconus, as revealed by in vivo corneal confocal microscopy. We also review eligible case reports of post-photorefractive keratectomy ectasia to find similar characteristics.
Keywords: Cornea/pathology; Dilatation, pathologic; Keratoconus; Photorefractive keratectomy; Keratomileusis, laser in situ; Microscopy, confocal; Humans; Case reports
This case report identified paracentral acute middle maculopathy as the cause of severe and irreversible vision loss after cataract surgery. Cataract surgeons should be aware of known risk factors for the development of paracentral acute middle maculopathy. In those patients, extra care regarding anesthesia, intraocular pressure, and some other aspects of cataract surgery must be taken. Paracentral acute middle maculopathy is currently understood as a clinical sign evident on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and it is probably evidence of deep ischemic insult to the retina. It should be a differential diagnosis in cases of marked low vision acuity associated with no fundus abnormalities in the immediate postoperative period, as demonstrated in the presented case.
Keywords: Tomography, optical coherence; Ophthalmologic surgical procedures; Postoperative complications; Risk factors; Cataract; Cataract extraction; Low vision; Eye health
Purpose: To determine the relationship of ocular surface disease, the number of glaucoma medications prescribed and its influence on treatment adherence.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, demographic data of patients with glaucoma were collected, and patients completed the ocular surface disease index questionnaire and the glaucoma treatment compliance assessment tool. Ocular surface parameters were assessed by “Keratograph 5M.” Patients were stratified into two groups according to the amount of prescribed ocular hypotensive eye drops (Group 1, one or two classes of medications; Group 2, three or four classes)
Results: In total, 27 eyes of 27 patients with glaucoma were included: 17 using 1 or 2 topical medications (Group 1) and 10 eyes using 3 or 4 classes (Group 2). For the Keratograph assessment, patients using ≥3 medications had significantly smaller tear meniscus height (0.27 ± 0.10 vs. 0.43 ± 0.22; p=0.037). The analysis of Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire showed higher scores among the groups using more hypotensive eye drops (18.67 ± 13.53 vs. 38.82 ± 19.72; p=0.004). Regarding the glaucoma treatment compliance assessment tool, Group 2 had worse scores in components of forgetfulness (p=0.027) and barriers due to lack of drops (p=0.031).
Conclusion: Patients with glaucoma using more hypotensive eye drops had worse tear meniscus height and ocular surface disease index scores than those using fewer topical medications. Patients using three or four drug classes had worse predictors of glaucoma adherence. Despite worse ocular surface disease results, no significant difference in self-reported side effects was found.
Keywords: Medication adherence; Ocular surface disease; Ophthalmic solutions; Glaucoma
Purpose: Information is scarce regarding the comprehensive profile of patients with essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm in Brazil. The present study aimed to assess the clinical features of patients with these conditions, followed up in two reference centers in Brazil.
Methods: The study included patients with essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm, followed up at the Departments of Ophthalmology at Universidade Federal de São Paulo and Universidade de São Paulo. Apart from demographic and clinical features, past stressful events related to the first symptoms (triggering event), aggravating factors, sensory tricks, and other ameliorating factors for the eyelid spasms were assessed.
Results: A total of 102 patients were included in this study. Most patients were female (67.7%). Essential blepharospasm was the most frequent movement disorder [51/102 patients (50%)], followed by hemifacial spasm (45%) and Meige’s syndrome (5%). In 63.5% of the patients, the onset of the disorder was associated with a past stressful event. Ameliorating factors were reported by 76.5% of patients; 47% of patients reported sensory tricks. In addition, 87% of the patients reported the presence of an aggravating factor for the spasms; stress (51%) was the most frequent.
Conclusion: Our study provides information regarding the clinical features of patients treated in the two largest ophthalmology reference centers in Brazil.
Keywords: Blepharospasm; Hemifacial spasm; Meige syndrome