PURPOSE: The present study’s aim was to compare the biomechanical properties of corneal tissue in patients who underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) surgery, with successful big bubble formation and manual lamellar dissection, during failed big bubble formation.
METHODS: This retrospective comparative study included 60 eyes from 60 keratoconus patients who previously underwent DALK surgery. These patients were categorized as big bubble (+) or big bubble (−) based on the success or failure of big bubble formation during the surgery. The big bubble (+) group included 42 eyes, while the big bubble (−) group had 18 eyes. Moreover, the patients were regrouped as 0.25 mm and 0.50 mm to evaluate the effects of the disparity between donor and trephine punches on the biomechanical properties of the cornea. These biomechanical properties, characterized by corneal hysteresis and the corneal resistance factor, were measured using the Ocular Response Analyzer 12 months after the surgery.
RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the big bubble (+) and big bubble (−) groups in the biomechanical properties of the cornea (corneal hysteresis: 10.06, 10.25; p=0.716/corneal resistance factor: 10.15, 10.07; p=0.805, respectively). In addition, pachymetry results were not statistically different between the two groups. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor were positively associated with central corneal thickness (p<0.001/r2=0.506; p<0.001/r2=0.561, respectively). However, the study did not demonstrate a relationship between any of the punch sizes and corneal hysteresis or between the punch sizes (p=0.673) and the corneal resistance factor (p=0.643).
CONCLUSIONS: The corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor values were similar in big bubble and manual lamellar dissection after DALK. Thus, manual lamellar dissection was not a disadvantage considering the cornea’s biomechanical properties.
Keywords: Córnea/fisiopatologia; Transplante de córnea/métodos
PURPOSE: To evaluate causes and management of congenital corneal opacities (CCO) diagnosed in a tertiary care eye center and to compare the data with a previous study at the same institution.
METHODS: Computerized medical records in all patients with congenital corneal opacities diagnosed in the Cornea Service at Wills Eye Hospital (Philadelphia, PA) between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015, were retrospectively reviewed. Children aged 12 years and younger at the first visit were included in the study. Patients’ demographics, ocular diagnosis, laterality, associated ocular abnormalities, other ocular surgery performed prior or subsequent to the first visit, and their treatment were extracted from the medical records.
RESULTS: A total of 77 eyes in 56 patients were examined. The mean age at presentation was 32.8 ± 44.2 months, with the mean follow-up period of 26.7 ± 30.1 months. The most frequent diagnosis was Peters anomaly (53.2%), followed by limbal dermoid (13.0%), aniridia with glaucoma and microphthalmos (6.5%), sclerocornea and congenital glaucoma (5.2%), idiopathic (3.9%), Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly and Hurler syndrome (2.6%), and microcornea (1.3%). Primary keratoplasty was performed in 26 eyes, with the outcome rate in the clear cornea of 76.0% during the follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Peters anomaly is the most common cause of congenital corneal opacities encountered at our institution. Penetrating keratoplasty is the most frequent choice of corneal surgery to treat congenital corneal opacities. Additional interventions during penetrating keratoplasty were moderately positively correlated with graft failure. This study also shows the rates of some etiologies of that changed over the recent decades in our tertiary care Cornea Service. Although Peters anomaly remains the most common presenting reason for congenital corneal opacities, its rate appears to be increasing over the recent decade. Congenital corneal opacities due to birth trauma, which is one of the preventable causes, were observed in a previous study in our clinic; however, no new cases were noted in this study.
Keywords: Córnea/anormalidades; Opacidade da córnea/congênito; Ceratoplastia penetrante; Atenção terciária à saúde
PURPOSE: To analyze whether inter-eye osmolarity differences were related to dry eye symptomatology.
METHODS: A total of 135 participants were randomly recruited from those who visited in the Optometry Clinic of the Optometry Faculty (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela). In a single scheduled session after the recruitment, Ocular Surface Disease Index was filled out following the standard instructions and TearLab measurements were made in both the participants’ eyes (10-15 min lapse). Osmolarity values were compared between the right and left eyes and the absolute inter-ocular difference (|OD-OS|) correlated with the Ocular Surface Disease Index score for the whole sample. Based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index score, the sample was divided into four symptomatic subgroups, and differences in the |OD-OS| values were calculated.
RESULTS: The whole sample showed a statistically significant inter-eye osmolarity difference (p=0.025; |OD-OS| = 9.2 ± 9.3 mOsm/l) and the correlation between Ocular Surface Disease Index and |OD-OS| (r=0.369; p<0.001). A statistically significant difference was found in the |OD-OS| value between symptomatic subgroups (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.003). Mann-Whitney U test showed a significant difference between asymptomatic vs. moderate (p=0.006) vs. severe symptomatic patients (p=0.001) and between mild vs. severe symptomatic patients (p=0.045), whereas no difference on |OD-OS| was found between participants with contiguous symptomatic subgroups (all p≥0.174).
CONCLUSION: Tear film inter-eye osmolarity differences are significantly higher in severe dry eye disease symptoms.
Keywords: Concentração osmolar; Síndromes do olho seco; Aparelho lacrimal/química; Lágrimas/química
PURPOSE: To evaluate the characteristics of ocular injuries among elderly patients admitted to an urban level I trauma center because of major trauma from 2008 to 2015.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients aged >65 years admitted with ocular injuries that were identified with ICD-9 codes. Tabulated data were analyzed using the Student’s paired t-test, the chi-squared test, and regression analysis using STATA/MP-12 software. Significance was set at p<0.05.
RESULTS: Of a total of 861 patients, 221 (25.7%) admitted for major trauma and ocular injuries were elderly. The mean age of these patients was 80.3 years (median =79.2 years; interquartile range=63.8-94.6 years). Of these patients, 40.7% were males and 59.3% were females. The males were younger than the females (mean age, 77.3 vs. 82.4 years, respectively, p<0.001). Race was documented as white (30.8%), black (13.6%), and “other” (54.3%), with 67.5% of the “other” group (36.7% overall) identified as Hispanic. The most frequent injuries were contusion of the eye/adnexa (68.2%), orbital wall fractures (22.2%), and an open wound of the ocular adnexa (18.1%). Males had a 2.64-fold greater risk of orbital wall fractures (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.38-5.05, p<0.003). Patients with orbital wall fractures had higher injury severity scores than those without (95% CI=14.1-20.9 vs. 6.8-8.6, respectively, p<0.001). The most common injuries were falls (77.8%) and pedestrian/motor vehicle accidents (6.8%). Falls occurred mostly at home (51.7%), on the street (13.9%), and in hospitals/nursing homes (12.2%). Those falling at home were older than those falling at other locations (95% CI=81.8-85.4 vs. 77.0-80.6 years, respectively, p<0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: Ocular injuries in elderly Bronx patients most commonly occurred in females due to falls in the home/nursing home setting. Public health measures addressing identifiable individual and environmental risks in these common locations would be most beneficial in reducing the incidence of ocular injuries in this population.
Keywords: Traumatismos oculares/epidemiologia; Idoso; Acidentes por quedas; População urbana
PURPOSE: To compare the postoperative refractive predictability of IOLMaster 500 and Pentacam HR on the basis of keratometry and anterior chamber depth values in eyes with an indication for multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.
METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted on 118 eyes treated with phacoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens implantation. Only the eyes that achieved emmetropia in the dynamic refraction performed on postoperative day 30 were included. Haigis’ formula was used in each case to calculate the intraocular lens power, and the intraocular lens with the target refraction closest to emmetropia was implanted. Four lens calculation scenarios were tested by combining keratometry and anterior chamber depth measurements obtained using the two devices.
RESULTS: IOLMaster 500 and Pentacam HR differed with regard to mean keratometry (Δ 0.07 ± 0.03 D; p=0.0065) and anterior chamber depth (Δ 0.08 ± 0.01 mm; p<0.001). In the analysis of covariance, the following differences were obtained using the Haigis’ formula when confronted with the biometric values obtained by inserting keratometry and anterior chamber depth values, respectively: Penta/IOL x IOL/Penta (0.13 ± 0.03; p<0.0001); Penta/Penta × IOL/Penta (0.13 ± 0.03; p<0.0001); Penta/IOL × IOL/IOL (0.11 ± 0.03; p=0.001); Penta/Penta × IOL/IOL (0.11 ± 0.03; p=0.002); IOL/IOL × IOL/Penta (0.02 ± 0.03; p=0.865); and Penta/IOL × Penta/Penta (0.002 ± 0.03; p=0.99). The difference was smaller when measuring the anterior chamber depth using the IOLMaster 500, regardless of which device was used to measure keratometry.
CONCLUSIONS: Pentacam HR significantly differed from IOLMaster 500 when calculating keratometry. As regards the anterior chamber depth, the two devices were equally accurate.
Keywords: Catarata; Interferometria; Lentes intraoculares; Lentes intraoculares multifocais
Lisch corneal dystrophy is a rare corneal disease characterized by the distinctive feature of highly vacuolated cells. Although this feature is important, the nature of these vacuoles within corneal cells remains unknown. Here, we sought to analyze corneal cells from a patient diagnosed with Lisch dystrophy to characterize the vacuoles within these cells. Analyses using histopathology examination, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were all consistent with previous descriptions of Lisch cells. Importantly, the vacuoles within these cells appeared to be autophagosomes and autolysosomes, and could be stained with an anti-microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) antibody. Taken together, these findings indicate that the vacuoles we observed within superficial corneal cells of a patient with Lisch corneal dystrophy constituted autophagosomes and autolysosomes; this finding has not been previously reported and suggests a need for further analyses to define the role of autophagy in this ocular disease.
Keywords: Autofagia; Distrofias hereditárias da córnea; Opacidade da córnea; Vacúolos/patologia; Humanos
A 45-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of a mass located in the caruncle of his right eye. An incisional biopsy had been performed one month prior by another specialist, and the histopathology report showed basal cell carcinoma. The mass was completely excised with a 2 mm safety margin, and the large conjunctival defect was reconstructed with one sheet of amniotic membrane allograft. A histological diagnosis of pilomatrix carcinoma was established. To prevent recurrence after surgery, we added bevacizumab (25 mg/mL, 1.25 mg/mL per drop) eye drops four times per day for three months. At the one-year follow-up, the patient showed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis after initial excision and remains under close follow-up. Pilomatrix carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a caruncular mass.
Keywords: Folículo piloso; Doenças do cabelo; Neoplasias cutâneas; Pilomatrixoma; Carcinoma basocelular; Doenças do aparelho lacrimal; Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem; Diagnóstico diferencial; Humanos
A 37-year-old woman complained of headaches following bilateral visual loss in the past two years. She was obese and had undergone bariatric surgery three months earlier, followed by a considerable weight loss. Neuro-ophthalmic examination revealed a bilateral swollen optic disk. After a computerized analysis of the visual fields and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits, a diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension was made. At six months after the bariatric surgery, the patient reported no further headaches and exhibited better findings on computerized analysis of visual fields. However, fundus examination revealed persistent mild papilledema in both eyes. Ocular B-scan ultrasonography showed bilateral optic disk drusen. This report highlights the coexistence of true papilledema and pseudopapilledema due to optic disk drusen, following remission of idiopathic intracranial hypertension after a bariatric surgery.
Keywords: Papiledema; Drusas do disco óptico; Hipertensão intracraniana; Imagem por ressonância magnética; Cirurgia bariátrica; Humanos; Relatos de casos
PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the anatomical success rates of vitrectomy and SF6 gas tamponade for macular hole surgery with and without postoperative face-down posturing.
METHODS: This was an observational, longitudinal, and retrospective case series analysis. The study included 52 eyes from 52 patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy with trypan blue-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling and 25% SF6 tamponade for stages 2, 3, and 4 macular holes. After surgery, all patients were provided with a postoperative postural regimen: 31 patients were instructed not to maintain face-down posturing, whereas 21 were instructed to maintain face-down posturing for 7 days. The primary outcome measure was the macular hole closure rate. Statistical analysis was performed using Epi Info 7.1.
RESULTS: A total of 47 (90.3%) patients achieved hole closure. The nonface-down posturing group and face-down posturing group obtained closure rates of 90.3% and 90.4%, respectively; these rates were not significantly different. Statistical analysis revealed that no significant differences existed in sex, age, hole duration, hole stage, preoperative visual acuity, or postoperative visual acuity between the two groups.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that macular hole surgery with the use of short duration gas (SF6) is safe and effective and that maintaining a postural orientation of nonface-down posturing is also safe. However, these recommendations should be assessed further in a prospective and randomized study to comprehensively delineate the associated benefits and risks.
Keywords: Perfurações retinianas; Vitrectomia; Cirurgia vitreorretiniana; Hexafluoreto de enxofre/administração & dosagem; Fluorocarbonetos/administração & dosagem; Decúbito dorsal; Cuidados pós-operatórios
PURPOSE: To assess tomographic ganglion cell complex changes in patients with diabetic macular edema treated with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF).
METHODS: We analyzed data from 35 eyes of 35 previously untreated patients in whom diabetic macular edema improved after three loading doses of anti-VEGF injection and who did not receive repeated injections. We recorded spectral domain-optical coherence tomography assessments of ganglion cell complex and central macular thickness at baseline and monthly for three months, and on the sixth and ninth month after treatment. We compared the results with those of the unaffected eyes in the same patients and with those in a control group of patients with diabetic macular edema who were untreated.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in the treatment group was 60 ± 4.38 years. The foveal thicknesses measured using optical coherence tomography decreased significantly from baseline to the third month post-injection (p<0.05). The mean ganglion cell complex thickness was 115.08 ± 16.72 µm before the first injection and 101.05 ± 12.67 µm after the third injection (p<0.05). The mean ganglion cell complex was 110.04 ± 15.07 µm on the sixth month (p>0.05) and 113.12 ± 11.15 µm on the ninth month (p>0.05). We found a significant difference between the patients and the control group in terms of mean ganglion cell complex thickness on the second- and third-months post-injection (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the ganglion cell complex thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema decreased after the anti-VEGF injections. We cannot ascertain whether the ganglion cell complex thickness decreases were due to effects of the anti-VEGF agents or to the natural disease course.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Edema macular; Complexo de células ganglionares; Anti-fator de crescimento vascular endotelial; Doenças neurodegenerativas; Tomografia de coerência óptica
PURPOSE: To measure humor heat-shock protein 70, periostin, and irisin levels in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and cataract (without glaucoma), and compare them with those of patients with cataract but without pseudoexfoliation.
METHODS: We examined 31 eyes of 31 patients with pseudoexfoliation and cataract (without glaucoma) and 30 eyes of 30 patients with cataract. We collected aqueous humor samples from all patients at the time of cataract surgery through a limbal paracentesis via a 25-gauge cannula mounted on a tuberculin syringe that received 100 to 150 µL of aqueous humor. We measured levels of aqueous humor Heat shock protein 70, periostin, and irisin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods.
RESULTS: The age (p=0.221) and gender (p=0.530) means were similar between the pseudoexfoliation and control groups. The mean Heat shock protein 70 level (29.22 ± 9.46 ng/mL; 17.88-74.46) in the pseudoexfoliation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (19.03 ± 7.05 ng/mL; 9.93-35.52; p<0.0001). The mean periostin level was significantly higher (6017.32 ± 1271.79 pg/mL; 3787.50-10803.57) in the pseudoexfoliation group than that in the control group (4073.63 ± 1422.79 pg/mL; 2110.44-7490.64; p<0.0001). The mean irisin level (53.77 ± 10.19 ng/mL; 29.46-71.16) was significantly higher than that in the control group (39.29 ± 13.58 ng/mL; 19.41-70.56; p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Heat shock protein 70, periostin, and irisin levels increase in the aqueous humor of patients with pseudoexfoliation without glaucoma.
Keywords: Humor aquoso; Irisina; Proteínas de choque térmico HSP70; Periostina; Síndrome de pseudoexfoliação
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate optic nerve head parameters and inner retinal layer thicknesses in obese children and adolescents.
METHODS: Forty-one eyes of 41 pediatric obese participants and 41 eyes of 41 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Body mass index was calculated, based on sex and age, using body weight and height measurements. Blood lipid values (i.e., cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride) were measured in obese participants. Optical coherence tomography was used to examine optic nerve head parameters, including rim area, disc area, cup-to-disc ratio, and cup volume, as well as the thicknesses of retinal nerve fiber layers and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layers.
RESULTS: Optic disc parameters were similar in obese and healthy children (p>0.05). The percentage of binocular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness symmetry was significantly different between obese and control groups (p=0.003). Compared to the control group, participants in the obese group exhibited thinner retinal nerve fiber layers in the superior quadrants (p=0.04) and thinner ganglion cell-inner plexiform layers in the superior-temporal sectors (p=0.04). There were no statistically significant correlations between the ocular parameters and lipid blood test values assessed in this study (p>0.05). Body mass index was significantly negatively correlated with the mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (r=-0.33, p=0.03) in the obese group. There was no significant correlation between intraocular pressure and body mass index (r=0.05, p=0.74).
CONCLUSION: Compared to healthy children, obese children had greater binocular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness asymmetry and thinner retinal nerve fiber and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layers in several sectors. Blood lipid levels were not associated with retinal thickness or optic disc parameters in obese children.
Keywords: Células ganglionares da retina; Disco óptico; Fibras nervosas; Obesidade pediátrica; Adolescente; Índice de massa corporal
PURPOSE: Reduction of ganglion cell layer thickness may occur in diabetic patients without retinopathy. The relationships of this preclinical finding with retinal thickness or reduced parafoveal vessel density have not been established. This study investigated the relationships of ganglion cell layer thickness with retinal thickness and parafoveal vessel density in patients with and without diabetes.
METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional, prospective study that used optical coherence tomography angiography to compare non-diabetic patients (group 1) with diabetic patients without retinopathy (group 2). Ganglion cell layer thickness, macular thickness, and parafoveal vessel density (central, inner, and complete) medians were compared between groups (Mann-Whitney U test), and their relationships were assessed in each group (Spearman Rho test).
RESULTS: In total, 68 eyes were included in this study: 34 in group 1 and 34 in group 2. Ganglion cell layer thickness did not differ between groups in any sector. There were strong positive correlations between fields 2 (superior parafoveal), 3 (temporal parafoveal), and 4 (inferior parafoveal) of the optical coherence tomography macular thickness map and the ganglion cell layer thickness in all sectors in both groups. Central vessel density mean was lower in diabetic patients. In group 1 alone, thickness changes in the inferior and nasal inferior ganglion cell layer sectors were partially explained by inner vessel density (r2=0.32 and r2=0.27).
CONCLUSIONS: Mean ganglion cell layer thickness was not lower in diabetic patients without retinopathy than in non-diabetic patients. Moreover, it exhibited a substantial correlation with total macular thickness. Parafoveal vessel density decreased before ganglion cell layer thinning was observed.
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Células ganglionares da retina; Vasos retinianos; Angiofluoresceínografia; Mácula lútea; Tomografia de coerência óptica; Tonometria ocular
Purpose: The length of Descemet’s membrane and donor graft sizes in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty do not match in very steep corneas, which can lead to Descemet’s membrane folds. The aim of this study is to establish a theoretical model for graft size calculations for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and evaluate its efficacy for preventing Descemet’s membrane folds.
Methods: We calculated the arc diameter of the recipient bed by using the cosine formula and developed a table to aid surgeons in donor punch size selection. To test the usefulness of this formula, we evaluated the development of Descemet’s membrane folds in keratoconus patients with very steep corneas (K >60 D). In group 1, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty surgeries were performed using graft sizes that were determined based on our model (n=31). In group 2, graft sizes were determined based on the empirical judgment of the surgeon without any formal calculation (n=30).
Results: Our theoretical calculations demonstrated that the diameter of donor punch sizes needed to prevent Descemet’s membrane fold increases when the cornea is steeper, or the trephine size is larger. We tested the efficacy of this model on the clinical outcome of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. The mean age (28.9 ± 10.1 years vs. 32.8 ± 8.3 years, p=0.11) and preoperative K1 (59.2 ± 9.3 D vs. 58.1 ± 9.4 D, p=0.67), K2 (66.2 ± 6.0 D vs. 65.7 ± 7.4 D, p=0.81), and Km values (62.1 ± 7.7 D vs. 61.8 ± 8.1 D, p=0.88) were similar between the two groups. Three patients developed Descemet’s membrane folds in group 2, and none of the patients developed Descemet’s membrane folds in group 1. These results supported our theoretical calculations.
Conclusion: Adjustment of donor graft size based on the calculated arc diameter of the recipient bed reduced the development of Descemet’s membrane folds after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in steep corneas.
Keywords: Membrana de Descemet; Ceratocone; Ceratoplastia penetrante; Topografia da córnea; Córnea/patologia
Purpose: To compare the efficacy of three initial monthly intravitreal aflibercept injections followed by pro re nata (3+PRN) dosing versus five initial monthly intravitreal aflibercept injections followed by pro re nata (5+PRN) dosing in patients with diabetic macular edema.
Methods: A total of 60 treatment-naïve patients with macular edema who underwent intravitreal aflibercept injections (2 mg/0.05 mL) with at least one year of follow-up were analyzed in this retrospective and comparative study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the number of intravitreal aflibercept injections administered in the loading phase. The 3+PRN group comprised 27 patients, whereas the 5+PRN group comprised 33 patients. The visual and anatomical outcomes were compared between the two groups at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months.
Results: Both 3+PRN and 5+PRN, showed statistically significant improvements in the best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thicknesse throughout the study period (p<0.001 and, p<0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of changes in the best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness (p=0.453 and, p=0.784, respectively). The mean number of intravitreal aflibercept injections was significantly greater in the 5+PRN group (6.1 ± 0.8) than in the 3+PRN group (3.9 ± 0.8) (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The 3+PRN and 5+PRN regimens showed similar 12-month visual and anatomical outcomes following treatment with intravitreal aflibercept injections in patients with macular edema.
Keywords: Retinopatia diabética; Edema macular; Injeções intravítreas; Receptores de fatores de crescimento do endotélio vascular/administração & dosagem
Purpose: To compare the benefits and side effects of pars plana vitrectomy with those of systemic immune modulator therapy for patients with complicated intermediate uveitis.
Methods: This prospective clinical trial enrolled patients with recurrent intermediate uveitis who exhibited minimal improvement of visual acuity, despite injections of periocular steroids. Twenty patients were randomized to the pars plana vitrectomy group or oral steroid and cyclosporine-A group (10 eyes of 10 patients per group). Follow-up was performed for 24 months to study changes in visual acuity, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy score, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography findings.
Results: Visual acuity (logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution) significantly improved from 0.71 to 0.42 (p=0.001) in the surgical group, whereas it improved from 0.68 to 0.43 (p=0.001) in the immune modulator therapy group. Seven patients (70%) in the surgical group gained ≥2 lines, and six patients (60%) in the immune modulator therapy group gained ≥2 lines (p=0.970). Fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography studies showed that six of seven pars plana vitrectomy patients who had cystoid macular edema experienced improvement, whereas two patients with diffuse macular edema did not experience improvement. In the immune modulator therapy group, three of six patients with cystoid macular edema did not experience improvement, whereas two patients with diffuse macular edema experienced improvement.
Conclusions: Pars plana vitrectomy and immune modulator therapy resulted in significant improvement in visual function in patients with persistent inflammation secondary to chronic intermediate uveitis. Despite this success, there remains a need for the determination of optimal indications for the use of each modality. Immune modulator therapy was successful for the treatment of diffuse macular edema associated with chronic intermediate uveitis, whereas pars plana vitrectomy was not.
Keywords: Uveíte intermediária; Vitrectomia; Imunomodulação; Edema macular
Purpose: To evaluate the inner retinal and choroidal thicknesses in patients with early retinitis pigmentosa.
Methods: We analyzed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of 35 retinitis pigmentosa patients and 40 healthy individuals. We measured macular and ganglion cell complex thicknesses. We took choroidal thickness measurements in the subfoveal region and 500, 1,000, and 1,500 µm from the foveal center.
Results: Patients with retinitis pigmentosa had significantly thinner macular thicknesses and choroidal thicknesses in all measurements, and their individual ganglion cell complex thickness measurements were lower than those in healthy individuals. The mean ganglion cell complex thickness was significantly lower in patients with retinitis pigmentosa than that in controls. The mean macular thickness was significantly correlated with the mean choroidal and mean ganglion cell complex thicknesses. (We found no correlation between the mean choroidal thickness and the mean ganglion cell complex thickness).
Conclusions: The choroid was mildly affected in our patients with early retinitis pigmentosa. The tendency toward significance in the inner retina was possibly caused by a good visual acuity.
Keywords: Coroide/anatomia & histologia; Retina/anatomia & histologia; Células ganglionares da retina; Retinite pigmentosa; Tomografia de coerência óptica
Purposes: To evaluate changes in ocular blood flow and subfoveal choroidal thickness in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis after carotid artery stenting.
Methods: We included 15 men (mean age, 63.6 ± 9.1 years) with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis and 18 healthy volunteers (all men; mean age, 63.7 ± 5.3 years). All participants underwent detailed ophthalmologic examinations including choroidal thickness measurement using enhanced depth-imaging optic coherence tomography. The patients also underwent posterior ciliary artery blood flow measurements using color Doppler ultrasonography before and after carotid artery stenting.
Results: Patients lacked ocular ischemic symptoms. Their peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities increased to 10.1 ± 13.1 (p=0.005) and 3.9 ± 6.3 (p=0.064) cm/s, respectively, after the procedure. Subfoveal choroidal thicknesses were significantly thinner in patients with carotid artery stenosis than those in the healthy controls (p=0.01). But during the first week post-procedure, the subfoveal choroidal thicknesses increased significantly (p=0.04). The peak systolic velocities of the posterior ciliary arteries increased significantly after carotid artery stenting (p=0.005). We found a significant negative correlation between the mean increase in peak systolic velocity values after treatment and the mean preprocedural subfoveal choroidal thickness in the study group (p=0.025, r=-0.617).
Conclusions: In patients with carotid artery stenosis, the subfoveal choroid is thinner than that in healthy controls. The subfoveal choroidal thickness increases after carotid artery stenting. Carotid artery stenting treatment increases the blood flow to the posterior ciliary artery, and the preprocedural subfoveal choroidal thickness may be a good predictor of the postprocedural peak systolic velocity of the posterior ciliary artery.
Keywords: Estenose das carótidas; Stents; Ultrassonografia doppler em cores; Coroide/anatomia & histologia; Artérias ciliares