PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the anatomical success rates of vitrectomy and SF6 gas tamponade for macular hole surgery with and without postoperative face-down posturing.
METHODS: This was an observational, longitudinal, and retrospective case series analysis. The study included 52 eyes from 52 patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy with trypan blue-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling and 25% SF6 tamponade for stages 2, 3, and 4 macular holes. After surgery, all patients were provided with a postoperative postural regimen: 31 patients were instructed not to maintain face-down posturing, whereas 21 were instructed to maintain face-down posturing for 7 days. The primary outcome measure was the macular hole closure rate. Statistical analysis was performed using Epi Info 7.1.
RESULTS: A total of 47 (90.3%) patients achieved hole closure. The nonface-down posturing group and face-down posturing group obtained closure rates of 90.3% and 90.4%, respectively; these rates were not significantly different. Statistical analysis revealed that no significant differences existed in sex, age, hole duration, hole stage, preoperative visual acuity, or postoperative visual acuity between the two groups.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that macular hole surgery with the use of short duration gas (SF6) is safe and effective and that maintaining a postural orientation of nonface-down posturing is also safe. However, these recommendations should be assessed further in a prospective and randomized study to comprehensively delineate the associated benefits and risks.
Keywords: Retinal perforations; Vitrectomy; Vitreoretinal surgery; Sulfur hexafluoride/administration & dosage; Fluorocarbons/ administration & dosage; Supine position; Postoperative care
Purpose: The length of Descemet’s membrane and donor graft sizes in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty do not match in very steep corneas, which can lead to Descemet’s membrane folds. The aim of this study is to establish a theoretical model for graft size calculations for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and evaluate its efficacy for preventing Descemet’s membrane folds.
Methods: We calculated the arc diameter of the recipient bed by using the cosine formula and developed a table to aid surgeons in donor punch size selection. To test the usefulness of this formula, we evaluated the development of Descemet’s membrane folds in keratoconus patients with very steep corneas (K >60 D). In group 1, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty surgeries were performed using graft sizes that were determined based on our model (n=31). In group 2, graft sizes were determined based on the empirical judgment of the surgeon without any formal calculation (n=30).
Results: Our theoretical calculations demonstrated that the diameter of donor punch sizes needed to prevent Descemet’s membrane fold increases when the cornea is steeper, or the trephine size is larger. We tested the efficacy of this model on the clinical outcome of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. The mean age (28.9 ± 10.1 years vs. 32.8 ± 8.3 years, p=0.11) and preoperative K1 (59.2 ± 9.3 D vs. 58.1 ± 9.4 D, p=0.67), K2 (66.2 ± 6.0 D vs. 65.7 ± 7.4 D, p=0.81), and Km values (62.1 ± 7.7 D vs. 61.8 ± 8.1 D, p=0.88) were similar between the two groups. Three patients developed Descemet’s membrane folds in group 2, and none of the patients developed Descemet’s membrane folds in group 1. These results supported our theoretical calculations.
Conclusion: Adjustment of donor graft size based on the calculated arc diameter of the recipient bed reduced the development of Descemet’s membrane folds after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in steep corneas.
Keywords: Descemet’s membrane; Keratoconus; Keratoplasty, penetrating; Corneal topography; Cornea/pathology
PURPOSE: To assess tomographic ganglion cell complex changes in patients with diabetic macular edema treated with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF).
METHODS: We analyzed data from 35 eyes of 35 previously untreated patients in whom diabetic macular edema improved after three loading doses of anti-VEGF injection and who did not receive repeated injections. We recorded spectral domain-optical coherence tomography assessments of ganglion cell complex and central macular thickness at baseline and monthly for three months, and on the sixth and ninth month after treatment. We compared the results with those of the unaffected eyes in the same patients and with those in a control group of patients with diabetic macular edema who were untreated.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in the treatment group was 60 ± 4.38 years. The foveal thicknesses measured using optical coherence tomography decreased significantly from baseline to the third month post-injection (p<0.05). The mean ganglion cell complex thickness was 115.08 ± 16.72 µm before the first injection and 101.05 ± 12.67 µm after the third injection (p<0.05). The mean ganglion cell complex was 110.04 ± 15.07 µm on the sixth month (p>0.05) and 113.12 ± 11.15 µm on the ninth month (p>0.05). We found a significant difference between the patients and the control group in terms of mean ganglion cell complex thickness on the second- and third-months post-injection (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the ganglion cell complex thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema decreased after the anti-VEGF injections. We cannot ascertain whether the ganglion cell complex thickness decreases were due to effects of the anti-VEGF agents or to the natural disease course.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Macular edema; Ganglion cell complex; Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor; Neurodegenerative diseases; Tomography, optical coherence
PURPOSE: To measure humor heat-shock protein 70, periostin, and irisin levels in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and cataract (without glaucoma), and compare them with those of patients with cataract but without pseudoexfoliation.
METHODS: We examined 31 eyes of 31 patients with pseudoexfoliation and cataract (without glaucoma) and 30 eyes of 30 patients with cataract. We collected aqueous humor samples from all patients at the time of cataract surgery through a limbal paracentesis via a 25-gauge cannula mounted on a tuberculin syringe that received 100 to 150 µL of aqueous humor. We measured levels of aqueous humor Heat shock protein 70, periostin, and irisin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods.
RESULTS: The age (p=0.221) and gender (p=0.530) means were similar between the pseudoexfoliation and control groups. The mean Heat shock protein 70 level (29.22 ± 9.46 ng/mL; 17.88-74.46) in the pseudoexfoliation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (19.03 ± 7.05 ng/mL; 9.93-35.52; p<0.0001). The mean periostin level was significantly higher (6017.32 ± 1271.79 pg/mL; 3787.50-10803.57) in the pseudoexfoliation group than that in the control group (4073.63 ± 1422.79 pg/mL; 2110.44-7490.64; p<0.0001). The mean irisin level (53.77 ± 10.19 ng/mL; 29.46-71.16) was significantly higher than that in the control group (39.29 ± 13.58 ng/mL; 19.41-70.56; p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Heat shock protein 70, periostin, and irisin levels increase in the aqueous humor of patients with pseudoexfoliation without glaucoma.
Keywords: Aqueous humor; Irisin; HSP70, heat-shock proteins; Periostin; Pseudoexfoliation syndrome
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate optic nerve head parameters and inner retinal layer thicknesses in obese children and adolescents.
METHODS: Forty-one eyes of 41 pediatric obese participants and 41 eyes of 41 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Body mass index was calculated, based on sex and age, using body weight and height measurements. Blood lipid values (i.e., cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride) were measured in obese participants. Optical coherence tomography was used to examine optic nerve head parameters, including rim area, disc area, cup-to-disc ratio, and cup volume, as well as the thicknesses of retinal nerve fiber layers and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layers.
RESULTS: Optic disc parameters were similar in obese and healthy children (p>0.05). The percentage of binocular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness symmetry was significantly different between obese and control groups (p=0.003). Compared to the control group, participants in the obese group exhibited thinner retinal nerve fiber layers in the superior quadrants (p=0.04) and thinner ganglion cell-inner plexiform layers in the superior-temporal sectors (p=0.04). There were no statistically significant correlations between the ocular parameters and lipid blood test values assessed in this study (p>0.05). Body mass index was significantly negatively correlated with the mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (r=-0.33, p=0.03) in the obese group. There was no significant correlation between intraocular pressure and body mass index (r=0.05, p=0.74).
CONCLUSION: Compared to healthy children, obese children had greater binocular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness asymmetry and thinner retinal nerve fiber and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layers in several sectors. Blood lipid levels were not associated with retinal thickness or optic disc parameters in obese children.
Keywords: Retinal ganglion cells; Optic disc; Nerve fibers; Pediatric obesity; Adolescent; Body mass index
PURPOSE: Reduction of ganglion cell layer thickness may occur in diabetic patients without retinopathy. The relationships of this preclinical finding with retinal thickness or reduced parafoveal vessel density have not been established. This study investigated the relationships of ganglion cell layer thickness with retinal thickness and parafoveal vessel density in patients with and without diabetes.
METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional, prospective study that used optical coherence tomography angiography to compare non-diabetic patients (group 1) with diabetic patients without retinopathy (group 2). Ganglion cell layer thickness, macular thickness, and parafoveal vessel density (central, inner, and complete) medians were compared between groups (Mann-Whitney U test), and their relationships were assessed in each group (Spearman Rho test).
RESULTS: In total, 68 eyes were included in this study: 34 in group 1 and 34 in group 2. Ganglion cell layer thickness did not differ between groups in any sector. There were strong positive correlations between fields 2 (superior parafoveal), 3 (temporal parafoveal), and 4 (inferior parafoveal) of the optical coherence tomography macular thickness map and the ganglion cell layer thickness in all sectors in both groups. Central vessel density mean was lower in diabetic patients. In group 1 alone, thickness changes in the inferior and nasal inferior ganglion cell layer sectors were partially explained by inner vessel density (r2=0.32 and r2=0.27).
CONCLUSIONS: Mean ganglion cell layer thickness was not lower in diabetic patients without retinopathy than in non-diabetic patients. Moreover, it exhibited a substantial correlation with total macular thickness. Parafoveal vessel density decreased before ganglion cell layer thinning was observed.
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Retinal ganglion cells; Retinal vessels; Fluorescein angiography; Macula lutea; Tomography, optical coherence; Tonometry, ocular
Purpose: To compare the efficacy of three initial monthly intravitreal aflibercept injections followed by pro re nata (3+PRN) dosing versus five initial monthly intravitreal aflibercept injections followed by pro re nata (5+PRN) dosing in patients with diabetic macular edema.
Methods: A total of 60 treatment-naïve patients with macular edema who underwent intravitreal aflibercept injections (2 mg/0.05 mL) with at least one year of follow-up were analyzed in this retrospective and comparative study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the number of intravitreal aflibercept injections administered in the loading phase. The 3+PRN group comprised 27 patients, whereas the 5+PRN group comprised 33 patients. The visual and anatomical outcomes were compared between the two groups at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months.
Results: Both 3+PRN and 5+PRN, showed statistically significant improvements in the best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thicknesse throughout the study period (p<0.001 and, p<0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of changes in the best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness (p=0.453 and, p=0.784, respectively). The mean number of intravitreal aflibercept injections was significantly greater in the 5+PRN group (6.1 ± 0.8) than in the 3+PRN group (3.9 ± 0.8) (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The 3+PRN and 5+PRN regimens showed similar 12-month visual and anatomical outcomes following treatment with intravitreal aflibercept injections in patients with macular edema.
Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy; Macular edema; Intravitreal injections; Receptors, vascular endothelial growth factor/administration & dosage
Purpose: To compare the benefits and side effects of pars plana vitrectomy with those of systemic immune modulator therapy for patients with complicated intermediate uveitis.
Methods: This prospective clinical trial enrolled patients with recurrent intermediate uveitis who exhibited minimal improvement of visual acuity, despite injections of periocular steroids. Twenty patients were randomized to the pars plana vitrectomy group or oral steroid and cyclosporine-A group (10 eyes of 10 patients per group). Follow-up was performed for 24 months to study changes in visual acuity, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy score, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography findings.
Results: Visual acuity (logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution) significantly improved from 0.71 to 0.42 (p=0.001) in the surgical group, whereas it improved from 0.68 to 0.43 (p=0.001) in the immune modulator therapy group. Seven patients (70%) in the surgical group gained ≥2 lines, and six patients (60%) in the immune modulator therapy group gained ≥2 lines (p=0.970). Fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography studies showed that six of seven pars plana vitrectomy patients who had cystoid macular edema experienced improvement, whereas two patients with diffuse macular edema did not experience improvement. In the immune modulator therapy group, three of six patients with cystoid macular edema did not experience improvement, whereas two patients with diffuse macular edema experienced improvement.
Conclusions: Pars plana vitrectomy and immune modulator therapy resulted in significant improvement in visual function in patients with persistent inflammation secondary to chronic intermediate uveitis. Despite this success, there remains a need for the determination of optimal indications for the use of each modality. Immune modulator therapy was successful for the treatment of diffuse macular edema associated with chronic intermediate uveitis, whereas pars plana vitrectomy was not.
Keywords: Intermediate uveitis; Vitrectomy; Immunomodulation; Macular edema
Purpose: To evaluate the inner retinal and choroidal thicknesses in patients with early retinitis pigmentosa.
Methods: We analyzed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of 35 retinitis pigmentosa patients and 40 healthy individuals. We measured macular and ganglion cell complex thicknesses. We took choroidal thickness measurements in the subfoveal region and 500, 1,000, and 1,500 µm from the foveal center.
Results: Patients with retinitis pigmentosa had significantly thinner macular thicknesses and choroidal thicknesses in all measurements, and their individual ganglion cell complex thickness measurements were lower than those in healthy individuals. The mean ganglion cell complex thickness was significantly lower in patients with retinitis pigmentosa than that in controls. The mean macular thickness was significantly correlated with the mean choroidal and mean ganglion cell complex thicknesses. (We found no correlation between the mean choroidal thickness and the mean ganglion cell complex thickness).
Conclusions: The choroid was mildly affected in our patients with early retinitis pigmentosa. The tendency toward significance in the inner retina was possibly caused by a good visual acuity.
Keywords: Choroid/anatomy & histology; Retina/anatomy & histology; Retinal ganglion cell; Retinitis pigmentosa; Tomography, optical coherence
Purposes: To evaluate changes in ocular blood flow and subfoveal choroidal thickness in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis after carotid artery stenting.
Methods: We included 15 men (mean age, 63.6 ± 9.1 years) with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis and 18 healthy volunteers (all men; mean age, 63.7 ± 5.3 years). All participants underwent detailed ophthalmologic examinations including choroidal thickness measurement using enhanced depth-imaging optic coherence tomography. The patients also underwent posterior ciliary artery blood flow measurements using color Doppler ultrasonography before and after carotid artery stenting.
Results: Patients lacked ocular ischemic symptoms. Their peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities increased to 10.1 ± 13.1 (p=0.005) and 3.9 ± 6.3 (p=0.064) cm/s, respectively, after the procedure. Subfoveal choroidal thicknesses were significantly thinner in patients with carotid artery stenosis than those in the healthy controls (p=0.01). But during the first week post-procedure, the subfoveal choroidal thicknesses increased significantly (p=0.04). The peak systolic velocities of the posterior ciliary arteries increased significantly after carotid artery stenting (p=0.005). We found a significant negative correlation between the mean increase in peak systolic velocity values after treatment and the mean preprocedural subfoveal choroidal thickness in the study group (p=0.025, r=-0.617).
Conclusions: In patients with carotid artery stenosis, the subfoveal choroid is thinner than that in healthy controls. The subfoveal choroidal thickness increases after carotid artery stenting. Carotid artery stenting treatment increases the blood flow to the posterior ciliary artery, and the preprocedural subfoveal choroidal thickness may be a good predictor of the postprocedural peak systolic velocity of the posterior ciliary artery.
Keywords: Carotid stenosis; Stents; Ultrasonography, doppler, color; Choroid/anatomy & histology; Ciliary arteries
Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of complex strabismus syndromes that present as congenital and non-progressive ophthalmoplegia. The genetic defects are associated with aberrant axonal targeting onto the motoneurons, development of motoneurons, and axonal targeting onto the extraocular muscles. We describe here the surgical management of a 16-year-old boy who presented with complex strabismus secondary to hypoplasia of the third cranial nerve and aberrant innervation of the upper ipsilateral eyelid.
Keywords: Oculomotor muscles/Innervation; Cranial nerve diseases; Oculomotor nerve; Strabismus; Ophthalmoplegia; Case reports
A 42-year-old male presented with a 4-week history of a mass in the right inferior palpebral conjunctiva close to the punctum. An excisional biopsy of the lesion and histopathological examination revealed that the mass was composed of Schwann cells with thin conical nuclei, fine chromatin, and unnoticeable nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cells were diffusely and strongly positive for S100 protein. Neurofilament immunostaining was also positive, which highlighted axons. In light of these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as solitary circumscribed neuroma. A comprehensive evaluation for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b was performed. However, no multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b stigmata and no family history were detected. The diagnosis was therefore finalized as solitary circumscribed neuroma, which is considered as a rare conditio n. The differential diagnosis is based on the histopathological examination and immunohistochemical evaluation. As the tumor can be related with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b, it is essential to systematically investigate for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b in such cases.
Keywords: Neuroma; Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b; Conjunctival neoplasms; Diagnosis, differential; Human; Case reports
Here, we describe the result of a Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty for acute corneal hydrops in a 45-year-old female with keratoconus, who presented with severe visual loss in her OS. The patient’s best-corrected visual acuity was 20/80 in the right eye and hand motion in the OS. Slit-lamp examination revealed an extensive tear of the Descemet’s membrane and stromal corneal edema in the OS. We opted for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. Twelve months postoperatively, the patient had a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/50 in the OS.
Keywords: Keratoconus/surgery; Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty; Slit-lamp microscopy
In this report, we describe a new pupil expander device that was used to obtain adequate pupil dilation and centering in a patient with an iris coloboma. Specifically, we describe the case of a patient with an iris coloboma; a Malyugin ring was inserted to facilitate dilation during phacoemulsification surgery. One of the scrolls did not engage which resulted in an uneven distribution of forces and an eccentric pupil. A Canabrava Ring was then implanted that promoted effective pupillary dilation and remained stable and effective throughout the surgical procedure.
Keywords: Phacoemulsification; Equipment design; Pupil; Iris; Coloboma
The burden of corneal blindness and visual deficiency can be felt worldwide. Its association with several endemic diseases such as childhood blindness, trauma, infectious keratitis (including variants caused by herpes, hanseniasis, and fungi), vitamin A deficiency, diabetes mellitus, and other dry eye syndromes reflects its poorly understood underlying mechanisms and suggests that the actual frequency of the disease is underestimated. The low effectiveness of preventive and therapeutic strategies against corneal scarring or deformity predicts a high frequency of patients with corneal blindness in the future. Corneal blindness is associated with environmental factors and socioeconomic limitations that restrain health assistance and maintain a modest efficiency of the current therapeutic strategies for resolving corneal diseases in large-scale programs. We present here a critical review of the concepts associated with corneal blindness that need to be considered when planning strategies to prevent and treat corneal blindness worldwide (to be able to leave Plato’s cave, where corneal blindness is encaged.
Keywords: Blindness/epidemiology; Blindness/prevent & control; Blindness/therapy; Corneal opacity