Purpose: To investigate inter-eye retinal vessel density and thickness asymmetry in unilateral pseudoexfoliation syndrome and understand its use for the early detection of glaucoma.
Methods: Thirty patients with unilateral pseudoexfoliation syndrome were enrolled in our study. Optical coherence tomography angiography macular scans were used measure the retinal vessel density, and optical coherence tomography scans were used to assess the thickness parameters of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and the macular ganglion cell complex. Inter-eye asymmetry was determined by taking the absolute value of the difference in the vessel density and thickness parameters between the pseudoexfoliation syndrome eye and fellow eye.
Results: The mean patient age was 64.20 ± 7.05 y in the study group. Inter-eye asymmetry in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macular ganglion cell complex measurements were significant in the study group (p=0.03 and p=0.001, respectively). The vessel density of the macular superficial inner region was significantly lower in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome than in fellow eyes (p=0.035). However, there was no inter-eye asymmetry in the central and full region macular superficial vessel density of eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and fellow eyes (p>0.05).
Conclusions: Retinal vessel density can be evaluated using optical coherence tomography angiography measurements. There was inter-eye asymmetry in the inner region macular superficial vessel density, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, and macular ganglion cell complex thickness of the unilateral pseudoexfoliation syndrome eyes and fellow eyes. Further studies on a larger number of subjects might provide more clarity regarding the relationship between the inter-eye asymmetry of the retinal vessel density and thickness parameters with early detection of glaucomatous damage.
Keywords: Exfoliation syndrome; Glaucoma; Macular ganglion cell complex; Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography; Retinal vessel density
Purpose: To investigate the effect of hemoglobin A1c level on central macular thickness and central, nasal, and temporal choroidal thickness in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.
Methods: This retrospective study included 41 patients who had been diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus and undergone a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. They were divided into two groups based on their hemoglobin A1c level (group 1: hemoglobin A1c <6.0% and group 2: hemoglobin A1c ≥6.0%). All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. The central macular thickness and central, nasal, and temporal choroidal thickness were measured using optical coherence tomography.
Results: Of the 3,016 pregnant women screened, 7.5% (n=228) were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus during the study period and 41 of these patients were included in the study. Group 1 comprised 48 eyes from 24 patients and Group 2 consisted of 34 eyes of 17 patients. The average body mass index values were 30.8 ± 3.3 and 35.1 ± 9.0, respectively (p=0.002). The insulin use rates were 29.2% and 76.5%, respectively (p=0.000). Mean central macular thickness values were 250.8 ± 14.3 μm and 260.9 ± 18.1 μm, respectively, and the difference was significant (p=0.008).
Conclusions: Although the body mass index and central macular thickness values were significantly higher in Group 2, there was no difference in the central, nasal, and temporal choroidal thickness between the two groups.
Keywords: Gestational diabetes mellitus; HbA1c; Central macular thickness; Central choroid thickness; Optical coherence tomography
Purpose: To investigate the reduction in corneal endothelial cell density associated with gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (GATT) in a short-term follow-up period.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical charts of patients with open-angle glaucoma who underwent gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy isolated or combined with phacoemulsification (phaco-gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy) was conducted. Patients who underwent phacoemulsification alone were included as controls. The endothelial cell density data (assessed using a specular microscope) before and at the first month after operation were collected and then compared.
Results: Sixty-two eyes previously treated with gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy, n=39 eyes; phaco-gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy, n=23 eyes) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the study patients was 61.3 ± 18.4 years in the stand-alone gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy group and 60.4 ± 11.9 in phaco-gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy group. Men comprised 66.6% of the patients in the isolated gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy group and 56.5% of those in the phaco-gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy group. The mean visual field defects (mean deviation index) were -13.9 ± 9.2 and -10.3 ± 7.7 dB in the isolated gonioscopy-assisted and phaco-gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy groups, respectively. The patients in the former group presented a mean endothelial cell density reduction of 28.8 cells/mm2 (1.31%; p=0.467). In the latter group, the mean endothelial cell density loss was 89.4 cells/mm2 (4.36%; p=0.028). The control eyes (23 patients) presented a mean endothelial cell density change of 114.1 ± 159.8 cells/mm2 (4.41%; p=0.505). The endothelial cell density reduction in the phaco-gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy group was not significantly different from that in the controls (p=0.81).
Conclusions: Gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy appears to be a safe procedure for the corneal endothelial cell layer when performed either isolated or combined with cataract extraction in a short-term follow-up period.
Keywords: Glaucoma, open-angle; Corneal endothelial cell loss; Cataract extraction; Trabecular meshwork; Gonioscopy/methods; Trabeculectomy/methods
Purpose: To develop an application (TopEye) in the iOS platform for mobile devices to allow the capture and interpretation of color maps generated by corneal topographers using artificial intelligence.
Methods: In the execution, follow-up, and assessment of the project, we used the Scrum methodology and interactive and incremental development process for the project management and agile software development. The generated diagnostic pattern bank consists of 1,172 examples of corneal topography, divided into 275 spherical, 302 symmetrical, 295 asymmetrical, and 300 irregular patterns (keratoconus). For the development of the artificial intelligence of the application, network training was established with 240 images of each pattern type, with a total of 960 patterns (81.91%). The remaining 212 images (18.09%) were used to test the application and will be used for the results. The process is semi-automatic, so the topographic image is captured with a smartphone, the examiner performs the contour of the corneal relief manually, and then the neural network performs the diagnosis.
Results: The application diagnosed 201 cases (94.81%) correctly. In 212 images, the algorithm missed the classification of 11 cases (5.19%). The major error that occurred was in distinguishing between symmetrical and asymmetrical classes. In keratoconus screening, the application reached 95.00% sensitivity and 98.68% specificity.
Conclusion: The work resulted in obtaining an efficient application to capture topographic images using a smartphone camera and their interpretations through applied artificial intelligence.
Keywords: Mobile; Artificial intelligence; Corneal topography; Astigmatism
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the postoperative outcomes and evaluate the success predictors of phacoemulsification with Kahook Dual Blade goniotomy for cataract and glaucoma management in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma.
Methods: This was a retrospective, non-comparative; interventional case series in which all patients with primary open-angle glaucoma who underwent phacoemulsification with Kahook Dual Blade goniotomy between June 2018 and April 2019 were enrolled. All the participants had a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. Preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure values (at 1, 3, and 6 months), number of antiglaucoma medications, best-corrected visual acuity, surgical complications, and any subsequent related events or procedures were recorded. A logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between the different variables and surgical outcomes.
Results: A total of 47 patients (57 eyes) were included (mean age, 70.5 ± 7 years). The mean intraocular pressure was reduced from 15.5 ± 4.2 mmHg to 12.2 ± 2.4 mmHg at the last follow-up visit (p<0.001). The mean number of antiglaucoma medications decreased significantly from 1.9 ± 1.0 to 0.6 ± 1.0 during the same period (p<0.001). On the basis of the predefined criterion (intraocular pressure reduction ≥20% and/or reduction ≥1 medication), the 6-month success rate was 86%. A higher preoperative intraocular pressure value (odds ratio [OR]= 2.01; p=0.016) and greater percentage of initial (30 days) intraocular pressure reduction (OR= 1.02; p=0.033) were significantly associated with surgical success.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that phacoemulsification with Kahook Dual Blade goniotomy is an effective and safe alternative for cataract management in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma that positively impacts intraocular pressure control and medication burden. Eyes with higher baseline intraocular pressure and a more pronounced initial response to the procedure appeared to present better outcomes at 6 months. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety profile of the procedure.
Keywords: Glaucoma; Glaucoma, open angle; Cataract; Phacoemulsification; Intraocular pressure; Goniotomy
Purpose: Evaluate the patients in two neonatal intensive care units in Paraná/Brazil and identify the risk factors for the development of retinopathy of prematurity.
Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study on premature infants with gestational age ≤32 wk and/or with birth weight ≤1500 g who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Hospital do Trabalhador and Hospital Infantil Waldemar Monastier. These hospitals admit patients referred from other maternity hospitals in the state of Paraná. The study duration was 12 mon.
Results: The incidence of retinopathy of prematurity was higher in the Hospital Infantil Waldemar Monastier than in the Hospital do Trabalhador for premature infants who needed to be transported from their birthplace to the intensive care unit (52.2% vs. 29.6%). The following risk factors were associated with the development of the disease: longer hospitalization, low gestational age at birth, longer oxygen use, vasoactive drugs use, no antenatal corticosteroids use, intracranial hemorrhage, and any glycemic disorder. Low birth weight was an independent risk factor for the development of retinopathy of prematurity.
Conclusion: Early neonatal care and transportation of premature infants may influence the occurrence and prognosis of retinopathy of prematurity.
Keywords: Retinopathy of prematurity; Infant, newborn; Infant, premature; Infant, premature, diseases; Blindness
Purpose: To investigate the incidence, risk factors, and visual outcomes of epiretinal membrane development following rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair.
Methods: This was a retrospective study of 309 eyes that underwent initial surgery for primary uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Examinations were conducted preoperatively and then postoperatively at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The study patients were categorized into two groups depending on the presence or absence of the epiretinal membrane.
Results: The incidence of postoperative epiretinal membrane was 28.5%; 42.7% of these patients had severe epiretinal membrane development and therefore underwent the epiretinal membrane removal. Logistic regression analyses revealed that giant retinal tears (OR: 2.66; 95% CI: 1.045-6.792, p=0.040) and horseshoe tears (OR: 0.534; 95% CI: 0.295-0.967, p=0.039) were the significant predictors of postoperative epiretinal membrane. Triamcinolone acetonide staining was significantly associated with the prevention of epiretinal membrane (p=0.022). A total of 34 patients showed a better or an equal final best-corrected visual acuity; of which 4 eyes were evaluated at the final follow-up visit and exhibited a reduced best-corrected visual acuity.
Conclusion: Our analysis demonstrated that horseshoe tears and giant retinal tears represent the risk factors for the postoperative epiretinal membrane. Triamcinolone acetonide staining had a significant preventive effect on the postoperative epiretinal membrane. Furthermore, a second round of pars plana vitrectomy, including membrane removal, led to a significant improvement in the final best-corrected visual acuity as per the last follow-up examination, albeit the recovery was limited.
Keywords: Epiretinal membrane; Retinal detachment; Scleral buckling; Visual acuity; Vitrectomy
Purpose: To determine the incidence of ocular emergencies and patient profiles in a public health eye center in Brazil.
Methods: The medical record database of the Fundação Altino Ventura, Recife, Brazil was retrospectively analyzed and included all patients assisted at the ophthalmic emergency room between January 2017 and January 2018. Medical records with incomplete data and outpatient complaints were excluded. For records with multiple visits, only the initial visit was considered.
Results: In 1 year, 134,788 patients (mean age at admission: 38.7 ± 22 years; range: 0-99 years) were admitted at the emergency room of the Fundação Altino Ventura. The most frequent diagnoses were conjunctivitis (52,732 cases; 37.3%), blepharitis (7,213 cases; 5.1%), and corneal/conjunctival foreign body (6,925 cases; 4.9%). Corneal/conjunctival foreign body and ocular trauma had an eight- and two-fold higher incidence in male patients, respectively (both p<0.001). Female patients presented a two-fold higher incidence of trichiasis and blepharitis than males (p<0.001). Corneal/conjunctival foreign body and ocular trauma affected more patients in a productive age (>15 years), while corneal ulcers, blepharitis, and trichiasis affected more elderly patients. All diagnostic clusters (e.g., infectious diseases, ocular trauma, foreign bodies, retinopathies, eyelid disorders, corneal diseases, glaucomatous crisis, and neuroophthalmological diseases) were more common during the spring season (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The most common ocular emergencies in the present study were infectious diseases and foreign body. However, the incidence of ophthalmological emergencies was influenced by the age and sex of patients, as well as the time of the year.
Keywords: Emergency; Eye disease; Vision disorder; Conjunctivitis; Foreign body; Eye injury; Season; Brazil
Purpose: In this study, we aimed to show whether a difference exists between retinal and choroidal microcirculation findings between patients with familial Mediterranean fever and healthy controls.
Methods: Thirty-two patients with familial Mediterranean fever and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. All the patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure measurement. The AngioVue optical coherence tomography angiography device (Optovue, Fremont, CA) with split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography was used to evaluate and examine the retinal microvascular structure. Three-dimensional en face Optical coherence tomography angiography images were obtained by examining the macula using the 3 x 3 mm scanning protocol in the Angio Retina mode and the optic nerve using the 3 x 3 mm scanning protocol in the Angio Disk mode. All the patients’ right eyes were examined.
Results: A total of 62 subjects were included in the study, of whom 32 (53.3%) were female and 30 (46.7%) were male. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of optic nerve head or radial peripapillary capillary vessel density. On examination, the superficial capillary plexuses were statistically similar between the two groups, but the deep capillary plexus vessel density in the parafovea, superior hemi, temporal, and superior areas were significantly lower in the patients with familial Mediterranean fever.
Conclusions: We found that the capillary plexus vessel density was significantly lower in the parafovea, superior hemi, temporal, and superior regions in the patients with familial Mediterranean fever than in the control group. Therefore, OCTA, a noninvasive study, may be useful for understanding the systemic effects of familial Mediterranean fever.
Keywords: Optical coherence tomography angiography; Familial Mediterranean fever; Retinal microcirculation; Superficial plexus; Deep vascular capillary plexus
Purpose: To systematically examine the dynamic changes and time sequence in corneal epithelial cell apoptosis after excessive ultraviolet B irradiation.
Methods: Ultraviolet B (144 mJ/cm2) was used to irradiate rat corneal epithelial cells for 2 h. Cell morphology was observed on differential interference contrast microscopy, and the numbers of the different kinds of apoptotic cells were counted using the ImageJ software. Cell viability was measured with the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide method. Cell apoptotic rate and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were detected using flow cytometric analyses. The expression levels of 3 apoptotic genes were measured with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction at different time points within 0-24 h after irradiation.
Results: After 144-mJ/cm2 ultraviolet B irradiation for 2 h, the expression levels of caspase-8 and Bax were highest at 0 h; furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased at 0 h and remained constant for 6 h in a subsequent culture. At 6 h, caspase-3 was activated. The decrease in cell viability and increase in apoptotic rate peaked at 6 h. The caspase-3 expression level decreased within 12-24 h, which led to a decline in apoptotic rate and change in apoptotic stage.
Conclusions: The corneal epithelial cells exhibited rapid apoptosis after ultraviolet B irradiation, which was associated with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.
Keywords: Ultraviolet irradiation; Radiation; Epithelium, corneal; Epithelial cell; Cell survival; Apoptosis; Rat
Direct carotid-cavernous fistula is a high-flow communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus that requires early transarterial embolization for its resolution. We report a case of a patient with a direct carotid-cavernous fistula who subsequently developed a central retinal vein thrombosis due to a delay in treatment related to the health collapse experienced in the first months of the Covid-19 pandemic in Spain.
Keywords: Carotid-cavernous fistula; Covid-19; Retinal vein thrombosis
A 97-year-old female presented with spontaneous acute-onset palpebral hyperemia and edema of the right eye that had progressively worsen over the previous three days. These signs did not suggest possible carotid-cavernous fistula until a second examination 72 h later, during which the patient exhibited significant progression. Despite embolization, the patient exhibited sustained corneal edema, clots, and turbidity in the aqueous humor, which resulted in permanent visual loss. A greater level of clinical suspicion for possible carotid-cavernous fistula is warranted on initial presentation of palpebral hyperemia and edema to prevent possible irreversible vision loss.
Keywords: Carotid-cavernous fistula; Orbital cellulitis; Orbital disease, Visual loss; Endovascular Procedures; Humans; Case reports
The objective of this report is to describe a case of meibomian gland dysfunction associated with keratoconus and to examine the importance of treatment for evaporative dry eye in cases of corneal ectasia. A 45-year-old man diagnosed as having keratoconus complained of burning, tearing, itching, and red eye. He had a history of penetrating corneal transplantation and wearing rigid contact lenses. The meibography revealed a severe meibomian gland dropout and normal tear meniscus height in both eyes. Objective propaedeutic tests are important tools for dry eye diagnosis and proper evaluation of ocular surface and tear film. In older patients, the classic signs of atopic conjunctivitis are not always present, and the causes of chronic rubbing must be further investigated. Treatment of underlying chronic inflammation such as dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction, and blepharitis might be important to prevent keratoconus progression and guarantee symptom relief.
Keywords: Keratoconus; Meibomian gland dysfunction; Blepharitis; Dry eye syndromes; Humans; Case reports
The purpose of this study is to report the clinical features and outcomes of ocular surface toxicity following depatuxizumab mafoditin (ABT-414) therapy for unresectable glioblastoma. Ocular signs and symptoms of three patients treated with ABT-414 during a phase III trial for glioblastoma multiforme were evaluated. Both eyes of all patients were damaged during the week after the first infusion of the ABT-414 molecule. In all patients, mild-to-moderate keratitis could be ascertained, along with decreased visual acuity and blurred vision, as well as foreign-body sensation and redness. Symptoms and visual acuity improved 4 weeks. In conclusion, ABT-414 therapy may cause transient ocular surface toxicity. The initiation of artificial tears and lubricant ointment was enough to control the ocular surface signs and symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach, complete ophthalmologic monitorization, and elaboration of protocols are required to adequately manage these patients.
Keywords: Glioblastoma/drug therapy; Antibodies, monoclonal, humanized/therapeutic use; Cornea/drug effects; Visual disorders/etiology; Humans; Case reports
Allergic conjunctivitis is an increasingly frequent condition with a higher prevalence in children. It can be debilitating and is responsible for a great economic burden. These guidelines were developed on the basis of the medical literature (PubMed/Medline database) and the experience of an Expert Committee composed of members of the Brazilian Society of Pediatric Ophthalmology, the Brazilian Council of Ophthalmology, the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics, and the Brazilian Association of Allergy and Immunology. Allergic conjunctivitis is considered to be controlled when the ocular symptoms are not uncomfortable or are present, at most, on 2 days a week; the visual analog scale score is below 5; and the degree of conjunctival hyperemia is graded 0 or 1 on the Efron scale. Allergic conjunctivitis should be classified as mild, moderate, severe, and vision-threatening for adequate treatment and monitoring of frequency. The present document is a guideline for diagnosing, treating, and monitoring pediatric allergic conjunctivitis considering the clinical and demographic aspects of allergic conditions in Brazil.
Keywords: Conjunctivitis, allergic; Rhinitis, allergic, seasonal; Hypersensitivity; Child