PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between the incidence of complications and functionally monocular patients’ emotional reactions during phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia.
METHODS: We enrolled 22 functionally monocular patients (11 males and 11 females; group 1) and 19 age- and sex-matched controls (6 males and 13 females; group 2) in this prospective, interventional, cross-sectional, case control study. Demographics data, including age, sex, and educational background, were collected. Surgeries were performed by the same surgeon, and during surgery, the patients’ vital signs (blood pressure and heart rate) and surgical events (duration, body movements, signs of increased vitreous cavity pressure, difficulty in performing capsulorhexis, and complications) were noted. Pre- and postoperative visual acuity was also analyzed.
RESULTS: The mean age of group 1 was 73.05 ± 13.31 years and of group 1 was 69.74 ± 16.81 years. There was no significant between-group difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The average heart rate was similar in both groups, too. During surgery, the surgeon’s perception of excessive eye, eyelid, or head movements in both groups was similar, in addition to signs of increased vitreous cavity pressure.
CONCLUSION: It is safe to perform phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia in functionally monocular patients, who apparently behave similarly to binocular patients.
Keywords: Phacoemulsification/psychology; Capsulorhexis; Anesthestics, local; Visual acuity
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of pharmacological accommodation and cycloplegia on ocular measurements.
METHODS: Thirty-three healthy subjects [mean (±SD) age, 32.97 (±5.21) years] volunteered to participate in the study. Measurement of the axial length, macular and choroidal thickness, refractive error, and corneal topography, as well as anterior segment imaging, were performed. After these procedures, pharmacological accommodation was induced by applying pilocarpine eye drops (pilocarpine hydrochloride 2%), and the measurements were repeated. The measurements were repeated again after full cycloplegia was induced using cyclopentolate eye drops (cyclopentolate hydrochloride 1%). The correlations between the measurements were evaluated.
RESULTS: A significant increase in subfoveal choroidal thickness after applying 2% pilocarpine was identified (without the drops, 319.36 ± 90.08 μm; with pilocarpine instillation, 341.60 ± 99.19 μm; with cyclopentolate instillation, 318.36 ± 103.0 μm; p<0.001). A significant increase in the axial length was also detected (without the drops, 23.26 ± 0.83 mm; with pilocarpine instillation, 23.29 ± 0.84 mm; with cyclopentolate instillation, 23.27 ± 0.84 mm; p=0.003). Comparing pharmacological accommodation and cycloplegia revealed a significant difference in central macular thickness (with pilocarpine instillation, 262.27 ± 19.34 μm; with cyclopentolate instillation, 265.93 ± 17.91 μm; p=0.016). Pilocarpine-related miosis (p<0.001) and myopic shift (p<0.001) were more severe in blue eyes vs. brown eyes.
CONCLUSION: Pharmacological accommodation may change ocular measurements, such as choroidal thickness and axial length. This condition should be considered when performing ocular measurements, such as intraocular lens power calculations.
Keywords: Corneal pachymetry; Choroid; Corneal topography; Axial length, eye; Mydriatics/pharmacology; Pilocarpine/pharmacology; Accommodation, ocular
PURPOSE: To compare the use of visual field and/or optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with color retinography by non-glaucoma specialists for differentiating glaucoma from physiological cupping.
METHODS: Eighty patients with glaucoma or physiological cupping (40 of each) were randomized according to the examination used (GI: color retinography, GII: color retinography + visual field, GIII: color retinography + optical coherence tomography, GIV: color retinography + visual field + optical coherence tomography). Twenty non-specialist ophthalmologists diagnosed glaucoma from PowerPoint slide images, without direct patient examination.
RESULTS: Inter-examiner agreement was good for GII (ĸ: 0.63; 95%CI, 0.53-0.72), moderate for GIII (ĸ: 0.58; 95%CI, 0.48-0.68) and GIV (ĸ: 0.41; 95%CI, 0.31-0.51), and low for GI (ĸ: 0.30; 95%CI, 0.20-0.39) (p<0.001). Diagnostic accuracy was higher in GIII (15.8 ± 1.82) than GI (12.95 ± 1.46, p<0.001) and higher in GII (16.25 ± 2.02) than GI and GIV (14.10 ± 2.24) (both p<0.001). For glaucoma patients only, diagnostic accuracy in GII and GIII was superior to that in GI and GIV (both p<0.001). Sensitivity and specificity were 59% and 70.5% in GI; 86.5% and 76% in GII, 86.5% and 71.5% in GIII; and 68.5% and 72.5% in GIV, respectively. Accuracy was highest in GII (81.3% [95%CI, 77.1-84.8]), followed by GIII (79% [95%CI, 74.7-82.7]), GIV (70,5% [95%CI, 65.9-74.8]), and GI (64.8% [95%CI, 60.0-69.3]).
CONCLUSIONS: Non-glaucoma specialists could not differentiate glaucoma from increased physiological cupping when using color retinography assessment alone. Diagnostic accuracy and inter-rater agreement improved significantly with the addition of visual field or optical coherence tomography. However, the use of both modalities did not improve sensitivity/specificity.
Keywords: Glaucoma; Tomography, optical coherence; Visual field tests; Optic disk; Observer variation
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to analyze the profile and publication rate of abstracts in indexed journals presented in the cornea section at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Annual Meeting and to further identify potential predictive factors for better outcomes.
METHODS: Abstracts accepted for presentation at the 2013 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Annual Meeting in the cornea section were sought via PubMed and Scopus to identify whether they had been published as full-text manuscripts. First author’s name, time of publication, journal’s name, and impact factor were recorded. A multivariate regression was performed to explore the association between variables and both the likelihood of publication and the journal’s impact factor. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate the time course of publication of abstracts.
RESULTS: Of the 939 analyzed abstracts, 360 (38.3%) were published in journals with a median impact factor of 3.4. The median time interval between abstract submission and article publication was 22 months. The multivariate analysis revealed that abstracts were more likely to be published if they were funded (OR=1.482, p=0.005), had a control group (OR=1.511, p=0.016), and had a basic science research scope (OR=1.388, p=0.020). The journal’s impact factor was higher in funded studies (β=0.163, p=0.002) but lower in multicenter studies (β=-0.170, p=0.001). The Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed significant differences in the publication time distribution for basic science vs clinical abstracts (χ2=7.636), controlled vs uncontrolled studies (χ2=6.921), and funded vs unfunded research (χ2=13.892) (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Almost 40% of Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology abstracts were published within 5 years from submission. Funding support, basic research scope, and controlled design were the determinants of better outcomes of publication.
Keywords: Abstracting and indexing as topic; Bibliometrics; Congresses as topic; Meeting abstract; Publications/statistical & numerical data; Cornea
PURPOSES: To evaluate the relationship of changes in hypermetropia and ocular alignment in patients with accommodative esotropia.
METHODS: The medical records of consecutive patients diagnosed with refractive accommodative esotropia (esotropia eliminated or decreased to within 10 D with full hyperopic correction) were retrospectively reviewed. Cycloplegic refractions culled from medical records were converted into spherical equivalents. Presence of amblyopia, changes in refractive error and ocular alignment at admission and after the follow-up period were evaluated.
RESULTS: Seventy patients (mean age: 6.01 ± 5.41 years; female: 60.6%; mean follow-up: 5.8 ± 3 years) had corrected esotropia of 40 ± 20 prismatic diopters at admission. The average decrease per year in near and distance deviations with glasses was 1.71 ± 3.96 prismatic diopters/year and 1.09 ± 3.25 prismatic diopters/year, respectively. The total myopic shift of the right and left eyes was 1.08 ± 1.35 D and 1.20 ± 1.40 D, respectively. Myopic shift/year was 0.22 D/year and 0.26 D/year, respectively. The correlation between the rate of myopic shift and rate of change in corrected near deviation was weak. The correlation for the rate of myopic shift was not high for the right and left eyes (r=0.18; p=0.15).
CONCLUSION: The amount of deviation and hypermetropia gradually decreased in accommodative esotropia during follow-up. On the other hand, it may be incorrect to assure patients that the amount of deviation will decrease in parallel with the refractive error.
Keywords: Amblyopia; Accommodation, ocular; Esotropia; Refraction, ocular
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to further define the specific clinical characteristics of patients with Brown syndrome and evaluate the outcomes of superior oblique tenotomy in its surgical management.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the medical charts of 45 patients with Brown syndrome was performed, which revealed that 11 patients underwent superior oblique tenotomy due to abnormal head posture and/or hypotropia and 1 patient underwent bilateral superior oblique tendon elongation with a silicone band due to abnormal head posture. In the last patient, silicone bands were removed at the postoperative 3rd month due to the lack of improvement in the abnormal head posture and the limitation of elevation in adduction. Simultaneous horizontal rectus muscle surgery was performed in four patients.
RESULTS: There was a predominance of female gender, right eye, congenital form, unilaterality, A-pattern, and an abnormal head posture type with a combination of chin up and head tilting. Bilateral form was observed only in female patients. Amblyopia was detected in two patients. Among patients aged >5 years, 40% had reduced stereopsis. Abnormal head posture was found in 60% of patients. More than half of them were diagnosed with a vertical and/or horizontal deviation. Tenotomy procedure eliminated the abnormal head posture in all patients and significantly improved the mean limitation of elevation in adduction and hypotropia (p=0.001, p=0.012). Two patients developed inferior oblique overaction in the operated eye. There was complete spontaneous resolution in two patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of patients with Brown syndrome in our study are considerably consistent with those of previous reports. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of superior oblique tenotomy with less overcorrection in the surgical treatment of Brown syndrome.
Keywords: Adduction; Elevation; Hypotropia; Resolution; Tendon
PURPOSE: To determine visual impairment due to optic pathway tumors in children unable to perform recognition acuity tests.
METHODS: Grating visual acuity scores, in logMAR, were obtained by sweep visually evoked potentials (SVEP) in children with optic pathway tumors. The binocular grating visual acuity deficit was calculated by comparison with age-based norms and then assigned to categories of visual impairment as mild (from 0.10 to 0.39 logMAR), moderate (from 0.40 to 0.79 logMAR), or severe (≥0.80 logMAR). Interocular differences were calculated by subtraction and considered increased if >0.10 logMAR.
RESULTS: The participants were 25 children (13 boys; mean ± SD age, 35.1 ± 25.9 months; median age, 32.0 months) with optic pathway tumors (24 gliomas and 1 embryonal tumor), mostly located at the hypothalamic-chiasmatic transition (n=21; 84.0%) with visual abnormalities reported by parents (n=17; 68.0%). The mean grating acuity deficit was 0.60 ± 0.36 logMAR (median, 0.56 logMAR). Visual impairment was detected in all cases and was classified as mild in 10 (40.0%), moderate in 8 (32.0%), and severe in 7 (28.0%) children, along with increased interocular differences (>0.1 logMAR) (n=16; 64.0%). The remarkable ophthalmological abnormalities were nystagmus (n=17; 68.0%), optic disc cupping and/or pallor (n=13; 52.0%), strabismus (n=12; 48.0%), and poor visual behavior (n=9; 36.0%).
CONCLUSION: In children with optic pathway tumors who were unable to perform recognition acuity tests, it was possible to quantify visual impairment by sweep-visually evoked potentials and to evaluate interocular differences in acuity. The severity of age-based grating visual acuity deficit and interocular differences was in accordance with ophthalmological abnormalities and neuroimaging results. Grating visual acuity deficit is useful for characterizing visual status in children with optic pathway tumors and for supporting neuro-oncologic management.
Keywords: Visual disorders; Evoked potentials, visual; Visual acuity; Visual pathways; Optic nerve glioma; Child
PURPOSE: To describe microvascular changes in the maculas of individuals with type 2 diabetes observed on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images. We compared the maculas of diabetic subjects without diabetic retinopathy with those of healthy subjects and correlated the findings with the clinical profiles of diabetic subjects.
METHODS: One eye each of 30 patients with diabetes and 30 healthy individuals were examined. The patients with diabetes underwent funduscopy, retinography, and fluorescein angiography to rule out retinopathy. All subjects underwent optical coherence tomography angiography of a macular area (6×6 mm2), and the foveal and parafoveal vascular densities were analyzed in the superficial and deep retinal vascular plexus. The foveal and parafoveal thicknesses, foveal avascular zone of the superficial plexus, and choriocapillaris flow area were also examined. The optical coherence tomography angiography results were compared between the two study groups and correlated with the following parameters: visual acuity, time since diabetes diagnosis, glycemic control, lipid profile, and renal function of patients with diabetes.
RESULTS: A minimal increase in the choriocapillaris flow area was observed in the patients with diabetes (mean area, 22.3 ± 4.6 mm2 in controls; 22.6 ± 3.9 mm2 in patients with diabetes) (p=0.017). No significant differences were observed between other optical coherence tomography angiography parameters analyzed in the two groups. Glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly negatively correlated with the foveal vascular density of both plexuses; conversely, fasting blood glucose levels were positively correlated with the choriocapillaris flow area (p=0.034). The other clinical parameters were not correlated with the optical coherence tomography angiography findings.
CONCLUSION: Optical coherence tomography angiography may not be the most appropriate tool for detecting preclinical changes in patients with diabetes, moreover, optical coherence tomography angiography; does not replace clinical examinations. Glycemic control should be the primary clinical parameter considered during retinopathy screening. Larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
Keywords: Angiography; Diabetes mellitus; Diabetic retinopathy; Diagnostic imaging; Tomographpy, optical coherence
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriate timing of capsular tension ring implantation in cases of zonular weakness due to pseudoexfoliation syndrome.
METHODS: This prospective, comparative study was performed at the Ophthalmology Department of Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey. There were 43 patients included in the study. Group 1 (16 patients) had early capsular tension ring implantation, and group 2 (27 patients) had late capsular tension ring implantation. Patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome who underwent phacoemulsification surgery, posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation, and capsular tension ring implantation were included in the study. Intraoperative complications and difficulties with either capsular tension ring implantation or cortex removal were evaluated in each eye.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the groups in the difficulty of capsular tension ring implantation (p=0.124). The difficulty of cortex removal differed significantly between the groups (p=0.003). Intraoperative complications were observed in 3 patients in group 1 and 11 patients in group 2; the difference between the groups was not significant (p=0.18). Posterior capsule fluctuations were observed in 8 patients (29.5%) in group 2, which resulted in posterior capsule rupture in 2 patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Cortex removal is more difficult with early capsular tension ring implantation, and posterior capsule fluctuations may cause problems with late capsular tension ring implantation. The surgeon must consider the risk-to-benefit ratio of early versus late insertion for the optimal timing of capsular tension ring implantation.
Keywords: Cataract; Capsular tension ring; Phacoemulsification
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of coconut water and to analyze the use of coconut water solution for the conservation of human corneas.
METHODS: This was an experimental and controlled study performed at the Eye Bank of the General Hospital of Fortaleza. The coconut water-based solution was prepared at the Goat Seed Technology Laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Medicine of the State University of Ceará. Discarded corneas from the Eye Bank were divided into two groups for sequential experiments: G1, coconut water-based solution (experimental group), and G2, conservative treatment with OPTISOL GS® (control group). The osmolality of corneas in G1 was analyzed sequentially at 275, 300, 325, 345, 365, and 400 mOsm/L. The viability of the corneas was determined by specular microscopy and biomicroscopy on the first, third, and seventh days.
RESULTS: Corneas preserved in a solution of 365 and 345 mOsm/L had a transparency of 8 mm until the third day and had diffuse edema in the periphery, central folds, and partial epithelium loss until the seventh day. The 365-mOsm/L solution was associated with the worst results during follow-up. Corneas placed in Optisol-GS retained their original aspects.
CONCLUSIONS: Coconut water-based preservative partially maintained corneal transparency and epithelial integrity, especially during the first three days of follow-up. The coconut water-based solutions used were not effective for use as preservatives in a human eye bank.
Keywords: Cornea; Coconut water; Organ preservation/methods; Organ preservation solution; Biotechnology
Benzodiazepines are psychoactive drugs that are prescribed worldwide with limited information on their ocular side effects. Acute angle closure glaucoma is an adverse event with a high risk of blinding, especially in the elderly. We report two patients under 45 years old who presented with bilateral acute angle closure secondary to use of two long half-life benzodiazepines (clonazepam and alprazolam). In addition to suspending the use of these medications and administering ocular hypotensive drugs, both patients were successfully treated with bilateral peripheral laser iridotomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bilateral acute angle closure secondary to the use of clonazepam and alprazolam.
Keywords: Benzodiazepines/adverse effects; Intraocular pressure; Glaucoma, angle-closure/chemically induced; Iridectomy; Lasers
We report a case of a young Caucasian female presenting with sudden decrease of vision in the left eye, metamorphopsia, and nasal scotoma. Past medical history revealed a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, which was currently treated with azathioprine, pyridostigmine, and prednisone. Ophthalmological examination showed fundus with clear vitreous and yellow-white lesions that were isolated and perimacular in the right eye, multiple and confluent in the macula, and punctate in periphery in the left eye. Laboratory workup ruled out the presence of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Fundus autofluorescence disclosed hypoautoflurescence with hyperfluorescent margins corresponding to the lesions observed in both eyes and the angiogram revealed hyperfluorescence since early phases without late leakage. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed areas of intermittent retinal pigment epithelium elevations and disruption of the ellipsoid zone. She was diagnosed with punctate inner choroidopathy and then treated with an increased dose of daily prednisone, which resulted in progressive improvement of her visual acuity and anatomical status.
Keywords: Choroiditis; Multimodal imaging; Tomography, optical coherence; Optical imaging; Fluorescein angiography
Microperimetry biofeedback training is a vision rehabilitation method that involves the training of attention and oculomotor control, and the rehabilitation of poorly located and non-functional preferred retinal loci. It can significantly improve distance and near visual acuity in age-related macular degeneration. Previous studies have shown that biofeedback training using electrical nystagmography can reduce nystagmus amplitude and increase foveation time. However, these improvements have not been sustained following training sessions. We hereby report a pediatric case of idiopathic nystagmus in an 11-year old patient treated with microperimetric biofeedback to improve visual acuity and fixation stability. The training had a beneficial impact, positively affecting fixation stability as well as distance and near reading vision. Subjectively, improvement in quality of life was also reported. Conversely to previous studies, the positive effects in this case were maintained for as long as twelve months following therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case with long-term benefits to be reported in the literature.
Keywords: Nystagmus, pathologic/rehabilitation; Biofeedback, psychology; Low vision; Visual field tests
A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with the complaints of periorbital ecchymosis and subconjunctival hemorrhage that are visible, especially on the right eye. We noted that her complaints began the day after she underwent leech therapy on the glabella area for headache. On the glabella, 2 leech bites were observed close to the right side. Examination revealed ecchymosis on the bilateral eyelids and subconjunctival hemorrhage on the inferolateral and medial limbus on the right eye. No treatment was initiated, rather control measures were recommended. The follow-up after 1 month revealed that the patient’s complaints had disappeared.
Keywords: Headache/therapy; Hirudo medicinalis; Leeching/adverse effects; Orbital diseases; Hematoma; Conjunctiva; Eye hemorrhage/etiology
Acute retinal pigment epitheliitis (ARPE) is an idiopathic, self-limiting inflammatory retinal disorder that particularly affects healthy young individuals. The characteristic fundoscopic appearance of the acute retinal pigment epitheliitis includes a fine pigment stippling surrounded by a yellow-white hypopigmented halos in the macula. Although the exact pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown, some reports have suggested a relationship between a viral infection and acute retinal pigment epitheliitis. Acute retinal pigment epitheliitis is a rare disorder, and only single case reports or case series are found in the literature. The clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with this disease are not fully understood because of its rarity. In this study, we searched the literature to collect clinical and demographic features of the reported cases. We detail the characteristics of acute retinal pigment epitheliitis were pointed and discuss the pathogenesis of the disease.
Keywords: Retinal diseases; Retinitis pigmentosa; Epithelium; Retinal pigments; Circadian clocks; Retinal photoreceptor cell outer segment; C-mer tyrosine kinase; Visual acuity